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Flashcards in ADHD Deck (33)
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Majority of kids have ____________, but can just have __________

combined hyperactivity-inattentive subtype, inattentive


Is 'inattention' a misnomer?

• kids with ADHD do not have a problem with perception/filtering/ processing
• their difficulties are primarily with persistence - ie the capacity to sustain action/attention towards a goal/task

ADHD is a failure to direct behaviour forward in time - to persist towards delayed end points


Persistence (attention) relies on the ability to...

resist distractions.

Children with ADHD do not perceive/encode distractions differently but rather
- respond to distractions more than other children
- react to events that are irrelevant to the goal
- have difficulty re-engaging in tasks following interruption
- skip from one incomplete task to another


This 'inattention' may largely reflect...

impaired working memory


What's missing from current DSM criteria?

Emotional impulsivity.

While ADHD is not a mood disorder or emotional disorder, it is nonetheless associated with poor emotional control.

Children with ADHD have difficulties self-soothing, down-regulating, in order to express emotions in ways that are socially acceptable, or consistent with longer-term goals


ADHD is ____ comorbid with ODD and ___ comorbid with CD

50, 20


ODD can be differentiated from ADHD how?

ODD is not about attention but rather deliberately annoying others, blaming others, and arguing with authority figures. There is an inability to not be angry


In DSM-5, ADHD is currently conceptualised as a _____ disorder


ADHD clusters with autism, motor coordination, reading/learning disabilities


Despite DSM-5's criterion of a cut-off date of 12 years, a true ADHD case would show symptoms since

mid-primary school


____ of children with ADHD are comorbid with at least one Axis 1 disorder



What is the developmental trajectory of ADHD?

Hyperactivity symptoms are most pronounced in preschool and decline over time.

Inattention symptoms become increasingly apparent with age, as peers undergo rapid maturation of prefrontal cortex, and as school demands intensify


What are some non-genetic possible causes of ADHD?

Exposure to Teratogens and toxins during critical phases of pregnancy
- household, outdoor pesticides
- prenatal nicotine
- lead
- paracetamol?

Synthetic food colours - probably fake


Quantitative genetics refers to...

Twin studies research


Average genetic contribution of ADHD based on twin studies is ___, which is higher than ________

0.8, schizophrenia


High levels of parental involvement associated with...

reduced hyperactivity/inattention during early childhood


The more inconsistent the parental discipline, ...

the more ADHD increased over time


What are some alternative explanations (other than that bad parenting causes ADHD) for the link between parenting and ADHD?

1. ADHD may elicit negative responses from parents and family members
2. Gene-environment correlation (rGE)


ADHD Children treated with stimulants not only showed improvements in their symptoms but also...

the quality of parenting improved


What is evocative rGE and passive rGE?

evocative rGE: Child characteristics that are genetically based evoke negative responses from parents

passive rGE: The same genes that underlie ADHD in the child underlie parenting problems in their parents


How was evocative rGE and passive rGE in ADHD able to be tested?

A longitudinal study looking at genetically unrelated mothers and offspring (adoption-at-birth)


What were the main findings of the adoption-at-birth longitudinal study?

1. Biological mother's ADHD symptoms predict impulsivity in the child... child's impulsivity predicts adoptive mother's hostility towards the child... this in turn increases child's ADHD

In other words, the child's biological inheritance is driving the quality of parenting they receive. This quality of parenting exacerbates/reduces the child's ADHD symptoms over time

The idea = genetic loadings drive the environments we are exposed to


The ______ system is disturbed for kids with ADHD



The Dual Pathway Model of ADHD (Sonuga-Barke, 2005) argues that there are two distinct processes, involving distinct but overlapping neural architecture, with both shaped by environmental processes. What are they?

1. Deficits in inhibitory-based executive processes
---- ie find it very difficult to inhibit their responses towards extraneous distractive stimuli

this deficit leads to a

2. Motivational dysfunction involving disruptive signalling of delayed reward
---- ie unable to be motivated to engage in correct behaviour of delaying gratification


Response inhibition is the ability to...

inhibit an inappropriate prepotent or ongoing response in favour of a more appropriate alternative


Response inhibition is a prerequisite for...

self-control, emotional regulation, cognitive flexibility


Response inhibition is underpinned by the _______, which is modulated by _______.

frontal striatal circuit, dopamine


ADHD arises from neurobiological impairment in the ____________ with which the contingency between ________ and _________ is signalled.

power and efficiency
present action
future rewards


The motivational dysfunction is based in the ___________, modulated by _________.

frontal limbic circuitry (incl. amygdala)


The delay aversion hypothesis:
Demands from teachers/environment to delay gratification become....

really aversive --> lose control emotionally
environment becomes increasingly hostile ---> escalates ADHD


How can environments amplify the 'delay aversion'?

negative/punitive parenting reactions to hyperactive behaviour

inconsistent parenting