Flashcards in Conduct problems Deck (30)
ODD is a pattern of _______, ________ and ________ behaviour
negativistic, defiant, hostile
the symptoms of ODD are categorised along which three dimensions?
1. angry/irritable mood
2. argumentative/defiant behaviour
Children mainly scoring on the angry/irritable dimension are at risk of developing __________ disorders. They have an inability to regulate their negative emotions.
anxiety and depressive
The argumentative/defiant dimension is related to
ADHD, but ODD kids are more mindful of their behaviour
The vindictiveness dimension is associated with
callousness; empathic defects; instrumental aggression
What is reactive aggression vs instrumental aggression?
Reactive aggression = most kids with ODD, think world is a hostile place, react against that with aggression
Instrumental aggression = kids who use aggression as a means of getting what they want
Patterson's (1982) ________ theory became the dominant causal model of conduct problems
Coercion theory posits that the causal mechanisms of conduct problems lie in..
the moment-to-moment interactions you had with your parent as a kid
At the moment when the parent stops the battle, gives in, both parties are ...
simultaneously rewarded in terms of basic operant theory
- the child is positively reinforced by getting what they want
- parent is negatively reinforced because child's aggressive escalating behaviour goes away
Patterson said that everyone is both a _____ and an _______ in the system
Failure to establish normative compliance/cooperation in early childhood means that
- coercive behaviour functions as a substitute __________
- enters school with _________ deficits
- entrained coercive exchanges _________ to teachers and peers
Conduct disorder = repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the _________ of others or other major age-appropriate _________ are violated, as manifested by 3+ of the criteria in past 12 months
societal norms or rules
The criteria can be categorised into 4 groups:
1. aggression to people and animals
2. destruction of property
3. deceitfulness or theft
4. serious violation of rules
child-onset CD vs adolescent-onset CD?
adolescent-onset type is much more normative and tends to desist in adulthood
- an exaggeration of the normal process of teenage rebellion
- neurocognitive risk factors
- temperamental/personality risk factors
- coercive parent-child dynamics
CD includes a specifier for __________
limited prosocial emotions
- lack of remorse or guilt
- callous-lack of empathy
- unconcerned about performance
- shallow or deficient affect
High CU kids are insensitive to punishment, don't pay attention to punishment cues. This also applies to ________ cues. Low CU kids, on the other hand, are _____________ to emotional cues
overreactive - the more ambiguous the stimulus, the more they react
What is a hostile interpretation bias?
not good at recognising neutrality - as seen in the recognising faces study
High CU were bad at recognising ________ compared to low CU (less activity in the ________)
distress and fear
Genetic factors much higher for _____ CU compared to _____ CU
Think of attachment as a _______. We do things in order to attain attachments with people.
The core of parenting intervention = ___________ attention, i.e.
Reward positive behaviour with attention and attachment-rich style
Negative behaviour: ignore calmly, attachment neutral
Less than ____ of those in need have access to evidence-based treatments
Reward positive behaviour in an ___________, so that behaviour doesn't ___________.
Time out is a brief period where access to _________ is denied. Time out ends when the child is _________.
quiet and under control
In order for time out to work....
time in must be fun, loving, full of praise and encouragement
parent training success rates are around _____.
Predictors of poor outcomes include...
- marital discord
- socioeconomic disadvantage
- minority group status
High CU kids do not respond to ___________ compared to Low CU kids
parenting environments, harder to parent and harder to treat
High CU kids: ________ effective but ________ ineffective
discipline (time out)
Eye gaze findings comparing healthy boys and high CU boys?
healthy boys focus on the whites of the eyes
CU boys have scattered appraisal, not focusing on eye region
- It is clear that high CU kids have poor level of eye gaze towards their parents