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Flashcards in Conduct problems Deck (30)
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1

ODD is a pattern of _______, ________ and ________ behaviour

negativistic, defiant, hostile

2

the symptoms of ODD are categorised along which three dimensions?

1. angry/irritable mood
2. argumentative/defiant behaviour
3. vindictiveness

3

Children mainly scoring on the angry/irritable dimension are at risk of developing __________ disorders. They have an inability to regulate their negative emotions.

anxiety and depressive

4

The argumentative/defiant dimension is related to

ADHD, but ODD kids are more mindful of their behaviour

5

The vindictiveness dimension is associated with

callousness; empathic defects; instrumental aggression

6

What is reactive aggression vs instrumental aggression?

Reactive aggression = most kids with ODD, think world is a hostile place, react against that with aggression

Instrumental aggression = kids who use aggression as a means of getting what they want

7

Patterson's (1982) ________ theory became the dominant causal model of conduct problems

coercion

8

Coercion theory posits that the causal mechanisms of conduct problems lie in..

the moment-to-moment interactions you had with your parent as a kid

9

At the moment when the parent stops the battle, gives in, both parties are ...

simultaneously rewarded in terms of basic operant theory
- the child is positively reinforced by getting what they want
- parent is negatively reinforced because child's aggressive escalating behaviour goes away

10

Patterson said that everyone is both a _____ and an _______ in the system

victim, architect

11

Failure to establish normative compliance/cooperation in early childhood means that
- coercive behaviour functions as a substitute __________
- enters school with _________ deficits
- entrained coercive exchanges _________ to teachers and peers

social skill
social skills
generalise

12

Conduct disorder = repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the _________ of others or other major age-appropriate _________ are violated, as manifested by 3+ of the criteria in past 12 months

basic rights
societal norms or rules

13

The criteria can be categorised into 4 groups:

1. aggression to people and animals
2. destruction of property
3. deceitfulness or theft
4. serious violation of rules

14

child-onset CD vs adolescent-onset CD?

adolescent-onset type is much more normative and tends to desist in adulthood
- an exaggeration of the normal process of teenage rebellion

child-onset CD
- neurocognitive risk factors
- temperamental/personality risk factors
- coercive parent-child dynamics

15

CD includes a specifier for __________

limited prosocial emotions
- lack of remorse or guilt
- callous-lack of empathy
- unconcerned about performance
- shallow or deficient affect

16

High CU kids are insensitive to punishment, don't pay attention to punishment cues. This also applies to ________ cues. Low CU kids, on the other hand, are _____________ to emotional cues

emotional
overreactive - the more ambiguous the stimulus, the more they react

17

What is a hostile interpretation bias?

not good at recognising neutrality - as seen in the recognising faces study

18

High CU were bad at recognising ________ compared to low CU (less activity in the ________)

distress and fear
amygdala

19

Genetic factors much higher for _____ CU compared to _____ CU

high, low

20

Think of attachment as a _______. We do things in order to attain attachments with people.

reward

21

The core of parenting intervention = ___________ attention, i.e.

differential
Reward positive behaviour with attention and attachment-rich style

Negative behaviour: ignore calmly, attachment neutral

22

Less than ____ of those in need have access to evidence-based treatments

10%

23

Reward positive behaviour in an ___________, so that behaviour doesn't ___________.

intermittent unpredictable
extinguish

24

Time out is a brief period where access to _________ is denied. Time out ends when the child is _________.

reinforcers
quiet and under control

25

In order for time out to work....

time in must be fun, loving, full of praise and encouragement

26

parent training success rates are around _____.
Predictors of poor outcomes include...

60%
- marital discord
- socioeconomic disadvantage
- minority group status

27

High CU kids do not respond to ___________ compared to Low CU kids

parenting environments, harder to parent and harder to treat

28

High CU kids: ________ effective but ________ ineffective

rewards
discipline (time out)

29

Eye gaze findings comparing healthy boys and high CU boys?

healthy boys focus on the whites of the eyes

CU boys have scattered appraisal, not focusing on eye region

- It is clear that high CU kids have poor level of eye gaze towards their parents

30

Results of study comparing emotional engagement and child-centred play

both conditions improved kids' behaviour but no difference - may be due to general effects of warmth?

had no impact of CU traits despite behaviour improvement