Addictive Disorders: Gambling Flashcards Preview

PSYC3018 Abnormal Psychology > Addictive Disorders: Gambling > Flashcards

Flashcards in Addictive Disorders: Gambling Deck (48)
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1

Gambling and Problem Gambling definition

Gambling: risking an item of value on outcomes of events based on chance

Problem Gambling: when there is social or personal harm resulting from the gambling behaviour

2

Gambling and Problem Gambling definition

Gambling: risking an item of value on outcomes of events based on chance

Problem Gambling: when there is social or personal harm resulting from the gambling behaviour

3

Psychosocial motivation for gambling?

Why?
> Excitement
> Hope of winning large amounts
> Social environment
Why persist?
> Hope to recoup losses
> Emotional escape
> Satisfy emotional needs eg narcissism (being the poker master etc)
> Manage dysfunctional affective states (much like uppers and downers drugs) eg anxiety etc

4

What is the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling?

60-85% of general population gamble.

USA, Aus & Europe
- 0.4 - 1.1% pathological
- 1 - 2% problem gamblers

More prevalent in adolecents (3 - 14%) as more risk taking, but then grow out of it

People attending gaming venues 15-35%


5

Features of pathological gambling (age and sex)?

Age:
> much earlier is exposed at a young age
> Onset is 12 - 15 years (90% before 20)
> Average seeking treatment is 35 - 39 years
Sex:
> Females bimodal (youth and >45)
> Males - impulsivity, substance-use and risk taking are features of problem gamblers

6

Comorbidity of pathological gambling?

> 30-40% alcohol abuse/dependence - need to find cause and effect (alcohol at licensed gambling premises)
> 75% mood disorder eg depression
> 40% anxiety

7

What percentage of problem gamblers seek formal treatment?

8

What was gambling classified as in DSM IV

Impulse control disorder

9

What is problem gambling classified as now in the DSM V?

Substance related disorders -> addiction and related disorders

10

What are the 10 criteria for pathological gambling?

1. Preoccupation
2. Increased amount gambled
3. Irritability/restlessness on cessation
4. Escape from stress
5. Chasing losses
6. Lying
7. Repeated failure to cease
8. Illegal acts
9. Risked significant relationships
10. Bailout

11

How many out of the 10 Criterion (A) must be fulfilled?

Four

12

What is the significance of an early win?

2/3 pathological gamblers experience large wins prior to developing their problems

Sets up facilitative cognition - 'I can win, this is easy.'

Increases affective salience - gambling becomes stronger impact on mood than other activites

Increases frequency and intensity

13

What are the assumptions of the cognitive model?

> Illusion of control: personal skill
> Luck: personal attribute & superstitious beliefs
> Biased memories: recall of just wins over losses
> Myths regarding capacity to beat the statistics
> Cognitive regret: persist to avoid the pain of missing a win (e.g. waiting for a bus and not wanting to leave)
> Gamblers fallacy: assuming that after a loss or losing streak, that a win is inevitable

14

Neurobiology and Genetics

Suggestion of a deprivation in dopaminergic activity

Dopamine: reward, compulsion, motivation
Hippocampus: reward memories
Serotonin: impulsivity

The gambling behaviour balances out the deprivation of dopaminergic activity

15

Integrated Bio-Psycho-Social Model

Neurobiological/Genetic:
> meso-limbic/orbito-frontal rewards systems (same as substance abuse)

Family History:
> Modeling (Bandura)
> Exposure/attitude
> trauma/rejection

Belief Schemas:
> the normalisation of gambling builds schemas that it is

Peer Group Interactions:
> having a game of pool with mates, betting and increasing the motivation/reward etc

Coping strategies:

Personality traits:

16

What aspect of the 'Integrated Bio-Psycho-Social Model' does Cognitive Therapy deal with?

The Belief Schemas

17

What aspect of the 'Integrated Bio-Psycho-Social Model' does Psychpharmacological intervention deal with?

The Neurobiological/Genetic

18

What aspect of the 'Integrated Bio-Psycho-Social Model' does Behavioral therapy deal with?

Coping strategies, personality traits and neurobiological/genetic factors

19

What type of reinforcement schedule is gambling?

Random ratio

20

Why is gambling highly resistant to extinction?

Because it is a random ratio reinforcement schedule; can't predict when the next positive outcome will occur

21

Are pathological gamblers homogenous or heterogenous?

Heterogenous in term of their pathways to pathological gambling, but similar characteristics and outcomes.

22

What are the three psychopathological pathways to problem gambling?

1. Behaviourally Conditioned:

2. Emotionally Vulnerable:

3. Impulsive/Anti-social:

23

Describe the behaviourally conditioned problem gambler (how? motivation? treatment?)

How:
> reinforcement (positive) and conditioning - usually with a BIG win.
> bad decisions, rather than impulsivity
> problems, such as substance abuse, depression and anxiety are the outcome of gambling related problems - not the source of it
Motivation:
> cognitive distortions of success - I can actually beat the system
Treatment:
> CBT: behavioural modification plan, change cognitive biases and environment

24

Describe the emotionally vulnerable problem gambler (how? motivation? what type of gambling? treatment?)

How:
> Uses reinforcement (negative) and conditioning to REMOVE or MODERATE affective mood states
> Depression, anxiety ALREADY present
> Usually have poor coping skills

Motivation:
> It is an emotional escape

What type: Low-skill and isolating modalities eg old lady playing the pokies etc.

Treatment:
> Treat the cause, which is the comorbid affective mood states (anxiety, depression etc)
> Can be responsive to medication

25

Describe the antisocial, impulsivist problem gambler (how? motivation? what type of gambling? treatment?)

How:
> Deficits in reward pathways (dopaminergic)
> Impulsive and low tolerance for boredom
> less likely to seek help
> high ADHD correlation

Motivation:
> Gives them a buzz - risky behaviour

What type:
> high-risk and high-thrill; huge win AND huge loss gives them arousal, which they neurologically lack

Treatment:
> Most unresponsive to treatment
> Management of impulsivity, poor attention, etc through intensive CBT focused on impulse control
> Can be responsive to medication

26

Psychosocial motivation for gambling?

Why?
> Excitement
> Hope of winning large amounts
> Social environment
Why persist?
> Hope to recoup losses
> Emotional escape
> Satisfy emotional needs eg narcissism (being the poker master etc)
> Manage dysfunctional affective states (much like uppers and downers drugs) eg anxiety etc

27

What is the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling?

60-85% of general population gamble.

USA, Aus & Europe
- 0.4 - 1.1% pathological
- 1 - 2% problem gamblers

More prevalent in adolecents (3 - 14%) as more risk taking, but then grow out of it

People attending gaming venues 15-35%


28

Features of pathological gambling (age and sex)?

Age:
> much earlier is exposed at a young age
> Onset is 12 - 15 years (90% before 20)
> Average seeking treatment is 35 - 39 years
Sex:
> Females bimodal (youth and >45)
> Males - impulsivity, substance-use and risk taking are features of problem gamblers

29

Comorbidity of pathological gambling?

> 30-40% alcohol abuse/dependence - need to find cause and effect (alcohol at licensed gambling premises)
> 75% mood disorder eg depression
> 40% anxiety

30

What percentage of problem gamblers seek formal treatment?

less that 10%