Flashcards in Eating Disorders: Anorexia Deck (21)
What does Anorexia Nervosa (coined in 1874 by Sir William Gull) translate to?
A nervous loss of appetite, which was originally believed to be the source of starvation, much like depression.
However, it is not - the label is incorrect! It is starving yourself, even when you desperately want to eat.
What is Pica ED
Eating non-nutritional, nonfood substances
What is Rumination ED
Chewing and regurgitating repeated - like a cow
Avoidant?restrictive Food Intake Disorder
Avoidance of the sensory aspects of food eg. taste, texture and smell
What are the two main sub-categories of Anorexia Nervosa
> During the last 3 months the patient has not engaged in episodes of binge eating or purging behaviour.
> Weight loss through extreme dieting, fasting and/or excessive exercise
> During the last 3 months the patient has engaged in recurrent binge-eating and purging behaviour
What is considered partial remission?
After full criteria for anorexia nervosa previously met, Criterion A (low body weight) has not been met for a sustained period, but either Criterion B or C is still being met
What is considered full remission?
After full criteria for anorexia nervosa previously met, none of the criteria have been met for a sustained period of time
What are the three (A,B, & C) criteria for anorexia nervosa?
Criterion A: Restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight (behavioural)
Criterion B: intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behaviour that prohibits weight gain, even though at a significantly low weight (cognitive)
Criterion C: Disturbance in the way which one's body weight or shape is experienced (cognitive)
What is the BMI level for the severity classification? (mild, moderate, severe, extreme)
Mild: >= 17kg/m^2
Moderate: 16 - 16.99kg/m^2
Severe: 15 - 15.99kg/m^2
What does the 'literature' suggest about the male/female %
What are the common characteristics of a patient with anorexia nervosa?
> low self-esteem
> highly anxious
> high achievers
What are some of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa?
> linugo hair - most likely a evolutionary adaption to keep warm
> ceasing of menstruation
> loss of calcium from the bones
> low hormone levels
> heat produced through metabolism no longer exists -> get very cold
> severe bacterial infections; their immune system has switched off
Can drug treatment help?
> No - sadly, there is no drug which can help, even antidepressant drugs can't help their depressive symptoms
> However, medication for anti-psychotic drugs (for schizophrenia) is being used to treat the anxiety associated.
Why must you do extensive medical testing when assessing someone with anorexia nervosa?
The extent of the medical implications may not be overt; they may be just around the corner
What did the study by Keys et al. (1950) show about anorexia nervosa?
> The study recruited young men and starved them
> After 3 months, the experiment had to be abandoned
> It showed that many of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa are symptoms of starvation - unhealthy focus on food, low body temperature.
What is refeeding syndrome
> When you are significantly underweight, many of the essential salts that your body needs are so depleted
> These salts are needed to keep the heart going; they are also used in digestion - esp phosphate
> When given massive meals, all the phosphate was used to digest the meal, leaving none left for the heart
> Died from cardiovascular disease
What is cognitive dissonance in their perception of themselves?
Difference between how they know they look and how they FEEL they look
What happens when a AN patient looks at themselves?
self vs non-self images =
> there is greater activation in the insula (deep in the cerebral cortex - deals with perception, self-awareness, cognitive function)
self vs non-self images =
> engage the attentional and self-referencing, but suppression fo the perceptional processing
> their brain freezes
How does AN affect your cognitive functioning?
> AN patients focus on minute detail - eg. all the different animals which compile to make a face.
> Can't see global picture - coherence
> Much faster and more accurate in detail focused search tasks
> Great trouble shifting back and forth between multiple tasks - eg. become so focus on original set of rules or strategies
What is the average duration of AN