Flashcards in Child: ADHD Deck (20)
What is the argument over ADHD?
> Are the levels of people with ADHD actually increasing, or
> Are there just more diagnoses
What is the lifetime impairment compared to other disorders?
Very Low in disability adjusted life years (DALY) - but is this due to the effective treatment?
What is the INATTENTION for sufferers of ADHD?
> Sufferers of ADHD don't have a problem in focusing on a certain stimuli.
> Instead, the problem is sustaining the focus; they respond to distractions more.
> This 'inattention' may relate to impairments in working memory
What type of disorder is ADHD?
> It deals with externalising (under stress externalise your feelings and frustrations) and is now classified in the NEURODEVELOPMENTAL disorder group with Autism and Learning disorders.
> It is not a mood or emotional disorder, but it is associated with poor emotional control, due to EMOTIONAL IMPULSIVITY
What is ADHD?
A persistent pattern of impulsivity and hyperactivity together.
What are the criteria for Inattention?
a) fails to give close attention to detail etc
b) has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks/play activities
c) does not seem to listen when spoken directly to
d) does not follow through on instructions
e) has difficulty organising tasks and activities
f) avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort
g) loses things necessary for tasks or activities
h) easily distracted be extraneous stimuli
What are the criteria for hyperactivity and impulsivity
a) often fidgets with or taps hands or feet or squirms in seat
b) often leaves seats in situations
c) often runs about or climbs where inappropriate
d) often unable to play or engage in leisure activities quietly
e) often 'on the go' or 'driven by motor'
f) often talks excessively
g) often blurts out an answer before questions completed
h. often difficulty waiting his or her turn
i) often interrupts or intrudes on others
What are the two types of diagnoses?
Some children diagnosed with just the attention type (ADD), but most diagnosed with both (ADHD)
What is the difference between ADHD and ODD
ADHD: inability to pay attention
> UNFOCUSED and KIND HEARTED
ODD: Deliberate irritability focused at other people
> FOCUSED and DEFIANT
What are the requirements of the diagnostic criteria?
A. Several symptoms prior to age 12
B. They must be present across multiple settings; this means that it is truly neurodevelopmental
C. It causes an impact on life: social, academic, or occupational functioning
D. Not better explained by another condition - eg. fell of bike and now has a head injury
What is the developmental trajectory of hyperactivity and inattention?
Hyperactivity: symptoms more pronounces early and decline over time
Inattention: don't seem to emerge until they are increasingly put under stress
ie hyperactivity followed by the inattention late
What are some possible causes of ADHD?
> Teratogens and toxins - exposure during critical pregnancy
> Evidence for dietary factors in not very strong
What is the heritability of ADHD
0.8 - found through twin studies
What did Hawes et al. (2013) study find about parenting causing ADHD?
> High level of parental involvement WHEN THE CHILD IS YOUNG protect the ADHD for rearing its head
> Inconsistent discipline was associated with growth in ADHD over a year period
What did Lifford et al. (2009) study find about parenting and ADHD
> The poor mother-child relationship was not a driver for the ADHD symptoms;
> However, the ADHD symptoms were a driver for the poor mother-child relations
Conclusion: ADHD symptoms may be eliciting negative responses from parents and family members!
> Child's inherited IMPULSIVITY levels PREDICT how hostile the foster mother becomes
> As expected, child inherited IMPULSIVITY predicts ADHD symptoms later in life
> Inherited IMPULSIVITY -> hostility towards child -> exacerbated ADHD symptoms (0.26) - (even more so than just the genetic pathway (0.23))
Your body changes via genes being turned down and up - in ADHD showing more of the dopamine receptor gene being switched off.
What is the dual pathway model
1. There are deficits in inhibatory-based executive processes ie you can not stop certain behaviours!
2. Motivational deficit in the ability to delay reward
In summary, you can't inhibit the signal of a response and you can't delay a reward.
What is the 'delay aversion' hypothesis?
> The parents are continually trying to get the child to inhibit their behaviour and delay their rewards
> If they use hostility the delaying becomes aversion to the child