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PSYC3018 Abnormal Psychology > Child: Conduct > Flashcards

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What did the Kim-Cohen et al (2003) New Zealand study show regarding the link between child and adult disorders

The biggest predictor of adult disorders was childhood conduct disorders.

Conducts problems os one of the first signs that there is something emotionally and behaviourally wrong


What does conduct problems entail?

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder


What are the criteria for ODD

A pattern of negatavistic, hostile, and defiant behaviour lasting at least 6 months
1) often loses temper
2) often argues with adults
3) often actively defies/refuses to comply with adults' requests/rules
4) often deliberately annoys people
5) often blames others for mistakes/misbehaviour
6) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
7) is often angry and resentful
8) is often spiteful or vindictive


How many of the ODD criteria must be met

FOUR (in the last 6 months)


What are the

1) Angry/irritable mood
> feels done badly by
2) Argumentative/defiant dimension
> projects blame and argues
3) Vindicitiveness


What are the angry/irritability dimension

angry and poor emotional regulation
> most likely leads to mood and anxiety disorder


Arguementative dimension



Vindictiveness dimension

Callousness; empathic defecits; instrumental aggression - aggression to get what you want!

> lowest frequency amongst ODD


What is Patterson's (1982) coercion theory?

Family interactions based on social learning (operant conditioning) theory.

Husband gets yelled at to take out garbage, yelling escolates...
> He is negatively reinforced (removes aversive interchange)
> Wife is positively reinforced
(high escolation results in what she wants)


Whats is the result of the coercion model

The 100's of aversive interaction on a day to day basis:
> causes traps, which train (through negative and positive reinforcement) aggressive and hostile behaviour
> gradually attention patterns trap the child - they only get attention when they are naughty
> the parent no longer pays any positive attention to the child - only attend to child when they are aggressive and non-compliant
> the child will become a master at getting what they want through heightening on the aversive interchanges
> the child does not learn how to regulate

"The adult and child are both the victim and architect of this viscous cycle."


What are the implications of the coercion interchange in early development?

> The child will then take these un-regulated behaviour into school
> The environment will reinforce this behaviour as the child will socialise with other kids of the same 'defiance'.


What are the four dimensions of conduct disorder?

1. Aggression to people and animals
2. Destruction of property
3. Deceitfulness or theft
4. Serious violations of rules


Is conduct disorder heterogenous or homogenous?

> levels of emotionality
> level of onset
> levels of callousness

Changes treatment methods


What are the two onset types of conduct disorder?

Childhood-onset type:
> less normative and less healthy
> cut off 10 years
> many more neurocognitive risk factors (eg exucutive functioning, low IQ)
> coercise parent-child dynamics
> temperamental/personality risk factors

Adolescent-onset type:
> much more normative
> no such risk factors
> an exaggeration of the normative process of adolescent rebellion


What is the sex difference

There is some evidence that the normal onset age of conduct disorder is LATER for females than men


What type of conduct disorder are we more concerned about as clinicians?

Early-onset type


What are the two types of children with conduct disorder?

WITH limited prosocial emotions
WITHOUT limited prosocial emotions


What are the characteristics of children with and without the limited prosocial specifier (LPS)

> Low callous-unemotional (CU) traits
> emotionally dysregulated
> over reactive to emotional cues
> typical of anxiety, depression or ADHD
> reactive aggression - overreacting to emotional cues
> high attributional biases

> high CU traits
> more severe and chronic
> proactive aggression
> reward-dominance
> under-reactive to emotional cues - doesn't notice anybody else's state (what do I need?)


What type of conduct disorder sufferers struggle to identify face emotions?

Those with limited prosocial specifiers
High callous- unemotional traits
> they rarely show activation of the emotional brain (amygdala)
> may just be paying attention to the wrong areas of the face - looking at the mouth instead of the eyes


Heritability of high and low callous-unemotional traits

> Moderate genetic (0.3) and environmental influence
> High genetic 0.81 but low genetic influence


When do conduct problems begin?

Early, in either childhood or adolescence


What do conduct problems predicts?

A substantial risk for a range of future health problems eg depression, anxiety, personality disorders