Adrenal Gland Endocrine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Adrenal Gland Endocrine Deck (20):
1

Origin of Cortical cells

Medoderm -coelomic epithelium

2

Origin of medullary cells

Neuroectoderm

3

Corticosteroids

Mineralocorticoids --Aldosterone
Glucocorticoids --Cortisol

4

Effect of insufficient aldosterone?

Addison's
- Decreased Na
- Increased K

5

Where does Aldosterone act?

Distal Renal tubules to promote reabsorption of Na and excretion of K
-regulated mainly by RAAS system

6

Disturbance of growth of adrenal gland

1. Damage to hypothalamus/pitutiary --> disruption of fetal adrenocortical function
2. Atrophy
3. Hyperplasia
4. Neoplasia

7

Causes of Cortical atrophy

1. secondary to loss of pituitary corticotrophs
2. Iatrogenic --long-term glucocorticoids
3. Immune-mediated destruction of cortical cells

8

Canine idiopathic adrenocortical atrophy (Clinical signs/ Dx/ Tx)

- E-lyte imbalances
- Dx: ACTH stimulation Test
- Tx: Mineralocorticoids and Glucocorticoids replacement

9

Laminar hyperplasia vs Nodular hyperlasia

Laminar hyperplasia
- diffuse thickening of ZF and ZR

Nodular hyperplasia
-typically multiple nodules

10

Causes of hyperadrenocorticism

1. Functional cortical adenoma
2. Functional adrenocortical tumor
3. Iatrogenic

11

Disorders of adrenal medulla

1. Hyperplasia
2. Pheochromocytoma --more common

12

What is the enzyme used to convert Norepi to Epi?

Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase

Tyrosine --> DOPA--> dopamine--> NEpi --> epi

13

2 inflammatory disorders of the adrenal gland

1. Immune-mediated adrenalitis
2. Systemic infection

14

Lesion associated with immune-mediated adrenalitis

-Lympho-plasmacytic inflammation
-Destroys all 3 layers of the cortex
-Medulla untouched

15

Vascular disturbances associated with the adrenal gland

1. DIC --Medulla is common site for fibrin deposits
2. Embolization
3. Hemorrhage --common with sepsis (endotoxic shock)
4. Infarct

16

Why is it important for fetus to have an in tact HPA axis?

1. Maturation of fetal adrenal gland
2. onset of parturition

17

Hyperplasia/hypertrophy of adrenocortical cells (dogs)

Common lesion on old dogs
- Cushing's dz --> excess cortisol
- common cause: Functional Corticotroph adenoma
--> unregulated ACTH
- Dogs w/o pituitary lesions --increase hypothalamic metabolism of dopamine --> disrupt negative feedback on HPA axis

18

Most common hormone secreted functional adrenocortical adenomas (species)

Dog: Cortisol
Cat: Aldosterone
Ferrets: Estrogen

19

What species develops adrenal gland carcinoma more often?

Cattle & dogs

20

Pheochromocytomas

-diffuse or nodulaire medullary neoplasias
-functional --> Norepi --> systemic hypertension