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Flashcards in Pancreas Endocrine Deck (20):
1

Endocrine portion of pancreas

islets of Langerhans

2

Hormones secreted from:
- Beta cells
- alpha cells
- Delta cells
- F(PP) cells

Beta cells
-Insulin
-IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide)

Alpha cells
-glucagon

Delta cells
- somatostatin

F (PP) cells
- pancreatic polypetide

3

Insulin (when secreted & role)

Secreted: in response to elevated blood glucose
Role:
1. Transfer glucose into the cells (Hepatocytes, adipocytes, myocytes)
2. Enhances:
- Glucose oxidation
- Glycogenesis
- lipogenesis
- ATP &nucleic acid formation
3. Decrease Blood glucose

4

Glucagon (when secreted & role)

Secreted: In response to decreased blood glucose
Role:
- increase release of energy from target cell
- Promotes:
1. Glycogenolysis
2. Gluconeogenesis
3. Lipolysis
- increase blood glucose

5

T/F Diabetes mellitus always has pancreatic lesions

False
-If there is a lesion:
--selective degeneration/necrosis of islets
--digestive enzymes from surrounding tissue destroy islet cells also.

6

Lesions of Diabetes mellitus

-Increase susceptibility to infection (cystitis)
-Hepatomegaly - lipidosis and glycogen deposition
-Cataracts
-Microangiopathy

More striking in extra-pancreatic organs
(attributed to lack of insulin stimulation)
increases in glucagon exacerbate the lesions

7

Inflammation associated with Pancreas

1. Immune-mediated lymphoplasmacytic inflammation -- selective destruction
2. Chronic Relapsing Pancreatitis --destroys everything

8

Growth disturbances of pancreatic islets

1. Aplasia
2. Hypoplasia
3. Atrophy
4. Proliferative lesions --usually Beta cells

9

Term for tumor of Chemoreceptor organ (carotid body/Aortic body)

Chemodectoma
-Aortic body tumors ( heart base tumor )

10

Hormones secretes from Adipose tissue

1. Leptin
2. Adiponectin

11

Roles of Leptin

1. Appetite suppression
2. Heat generation
3. Pro-inflammatory

12

Roles of Adiponectin

1. Glucose uptake
2. Glucose Metabolism
3. Anti-inflammatory

13

Failure of target cell response

-Down regulation of receptors
-decreased adenyl cyclase

14

Causes of HYPOfunction of pancreatic islets

1. hypoplasia
2. idiopathic atrophy
3. Insular amyloidosis
4. General inflammation --> destruction
5. Immune- mediated destruction

15

Equine metabolic syndrome

"Horse diabetes"
-Insulin resistant
-Easy keepers are susceptible
-High levels of glucose --> increase in insulin secretion --> down regulation receptors --> Compensatory increase insulin secretion

16

What type of diabetes do cats get?

Type 2 - insulin resistance

17

Causes of insulin resistance

1. Equine metabolic syndrome
2. Type 2 Diabetes in cats
3. Competing hormons --Progesterone, GH

18

Islet cell adenomas

Most commonly Beta cell tumors

19

What hormone does the Pineal gland regulate?

Melatonin
-Rare tumors
-Most important in seasonal breeders

20

Tumors of neuroendocrine cells

Carcinoids
-these are scattered everywhere throughout body