Joints/ Tendons Flashcards Preview

Pathobio > Joints/ Tendons > Flashcards

Flashcards in Joints/ Tendons Deck (30):
1

Components of Joint

1. Articular cartilage -White, smooth, glistening
2. Bone synovial membrane
3. Synovial fluid

2

How does articular cartilage obtain nutrients?

-No nerves, blood, or lymph
-Obtain nutrients from synovial fluid & subchondral vessels

3

Articular capsule is composed of...

Outer layer = CT
Inner layer = Synovial membrane
-A cells = Macrophages (activated by IL15)
-B cells = Fibroblasts --> produce synovial fluid

4

Articular cartilage response to injury

-Limited response due to lack of blood flow
1. Cartilage erosion (not reaching subchondral bone) --possible recovery
2. Cartilage Ulceration (complete loss) --> repair w/ fibrocartilage!

5

Pathogenesis of injured cartilage

-Lack of compression/relaxation cycle --> atrophy

-Roughened --> fibrillation --> erosion --> Eburnation (ulceration)

6

Eburnation

Complete loss of cartilage
-exposed subchondral bone

7

Pathogenesis of Inflammatory joint degeneration

A cells secrete IL1 & TNFalpha --> stimulate B cells to produce PG & NO & collagenases --> inhibit proteoglycan synth --> articular cartilage degeneration

8

Which hormones have an anabolic effect on joints?

1. IL6
2. IGF
3. TNF beta

9

Synovial membrane response to injury

1. Hyperplasia of synoviocytes
2. Pannus
3. Joint Mice
4. Osteophytes
5.Inflammatory leukocytes

10

Response of Subchondral bone to injury

1. Sclerosis (decrease resorp/increased production)
2. Eburnation

11

Pannus

Granulation tissue --> Ankylosis

Ankylosis = adhesion between to bones --> stiffen/immobilize joint

12

Joint Mouse

Fragment of chondral/ osteochondral material, free in joint cavity

13

Osteophytes

Chondro-osseous proliferations at synovial membrane / perichondrial jnx

14

Joint ( portal of entry / Defense mechanisms )

--Direction inoculation &/or extension by adj tissue
--hematogenous

Defense = limited regeneration --> degenerative joint dz

15

Tendons ( portal of entry / Defense mechanisms )

--Lacerations or punctures
--extension from adj infection

Defense = similar inflammatory rxn to other tissue

16

Arthrogryposis

- contracture of the joint
- congenital
-sporadic
-viral (BLUETONGUE)
-hereditary
****CNS lesion --> degeneration/atrophy of muscles --> contraction of limbs

** non-neurologic form
-Alkaloids --lupine/ poison hemlock
--> fetal paralysis

17

Hip dysplasia

-Heritable --Dogs, Hereford cattle

18

Synovitis

Inflammation of synovial membrane

19

Arthritis

Inflammation of articular cartilage

20

Osteoarthritis

NONinflammatory Jt Dz
aka DJD

21

Arthropathy

Any type of Jt Dz

22

Outcome of inflammation in Jt

1. Resolution
2. DJD

23

Synovial fluid response (Acute/subacute/chronic)

Acute
-Reduced viscosity

Subacute
-WBCs &fibrin in fluid

Chronic
-granulation tissue
-fibrosis
-ulceration/hypertrophy of synovial lining

24

"Rule of thumb" for bacterial arthritis

Gram + --> Pyogenic

Gram - --> Fibrinous

25

Rare viral arthritis

Reovirus - Chickens
CAE - Goats

26

Rheumatoid arthritis

-Autoimmune
-non-infectious

27

Gout

Deposit of urates in /around joint
--> acute/chronic granulomatous synovitis
--> degeneration of articular cartilage

28

Pseudogout

Deposits of Ca & Phos in soft tissue of synovial capsule & ligaments
-young dogs

29

Outcome of IVDD

1. Disk herniation
2. Spondylosis --lateral & ventral --> decrease mobility/stabilztes

30

Joint neoplasm

Synovial sarcoma
-neoplasia of synovial cells in joints/tendons

A-cells = higher chance of mets
B-cells = lower change to metastasize