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Flashcards in Advanced Theories/concept Deck (12)
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John berger: "men act- women appear":

Argued that in art "men act and women appear." Similar to mulvey, he argued texts often present women as passive object of beauty, while men are the decisive characters of action


Naomi wolf- the beauty myth

Argued that for women, beauty is an economic value. Women need more beauty than men in order to be successful and it is this value which the media often presents as being of prime importance


The female gaze (gamman and marshment)

These theories claim that men can also be positioned as sexualised objects for the pleasure of female gaze.



Argued that women need lifestyle magazines becaise they are exvluded from thr mainstream culture and that they are encouraged to use products to please men



The concept that media texts reference or borrow from other texts perhaps in the form of parody or pastiche


Moral panic

Occurs when society sees itself threatened by the values and activities of a group who are stigmatised as deviant and are seen as threatening to mainstream societies values.


Two stages of moral panic-

1- occurrence of a deviant act or social phenomenon.
2- the act or problem being widely reported in the media which will then cause panic from the audience-eg, the riots


Imagined communities-Shuan Moore

Argued that media text often allows audience to perceive themselves as part of a imagined community, where the audience feel that they have something in common with other imagined members of the audience


Racial stereotype- Alvarado-

Suggested that there are four types of representations for the members of the black community:-

-the humorous
-the exotic> models
-the pitied> representations of needy black communities through charity advertising or films
-the dangerous> portrayed in news and documentary reports of black city gangs and etc.


Left and right wing (political ideologies)

Left wingers believe in the community that the rich can take care of the poor, and right wingers believe in the freedom of the individual.



- any dominant power ( eg, hegemony masculinity) but also used to refer to the process by which making that power appear natural or common sense


Laura mulvey-the male gaze:

Mulvey argued that women are often presented as passive often sexualised object for the pleasure of the male gaze