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Flashcards in Aerodrome Layouts and Markings Deck (33)
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When must an aerodrome be licensed?

For public transport of passengers
Instruction in flying
carrying out flying tests in respect of the grant of a pilots licence


What is the definition of an aerodrome?

An area of land or water designed, equipped, set apart or commonly used for affording facilities for the landing or departure of aircraft


What is the definition of a Runway?

A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing & take off run of aircraft along its length


What is the definition of a Runway Threshold?

Beginning of that portion of the runway useable for landing


What is the definition of a TAXIWAY

A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxying of aircraft & intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome & another, including: -
Aircraft Stand Taxilane
Portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft stands only.
Apron Taxiway
A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron & intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron.


What is the definition of an Apron?

That part of an aerodrome provided for the stationing of aircraft for the embarkation and disembarkation of passengers, for the loading and unloading of cargo and for parking


What is the definition of a Manoeuvring Area?

That part of an aerodrome provided for the take off and landing of aircraft & for the movement of aircraft on the surface
EXCLUDING the apron & any part of the aerodrome provided for the maintenance of aircraft


What is the definition of a Movement Area?

That part of an aerodrome intended for the surface movement of aircraft, INCLUDING the manoeuvring area, aprons & any part of the aerodrome provided for the maintenance of aircraft


What is the definition of a Hot Spot?

A location on an aerodrome movement area with a history or potential risk of collision or runway incursion, and where heightened attention by pilots/drivers is necessary.


What is an ARP?

Aerodrome Reference Point
The geographical location of the aerodrome and the centre of its traffic zone where an Aerodrome Traffic Zone is established
Work in progress on aerodrome or in their vicinity involving cranes (&other obstructions) is specified as a bearing & distance from the ARP


What are the four types of runway?

INSTRUMENT - non-visual aids providing at least directional guidance in azimuth adequate for a straight in approach
NON-INSTRUMENT - Visual approach procedures
NON-PRECISION APPROACH - Instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least direction guidance adequate for a straight in approach
PRECISION INSTRUMENT APPROACH - Instrument runway for aircraft using precision instrument approach aids for guidance in both azimuth and elevation (eg ILS, MLS)


What is an Aerodrome Reference Code System and what does it comprise of?

To ensure that facilities and characteristics of an aerodrome are effectively related to and math the needs of the aircraft for which the aerodrome intends to cater for.
Comprises of 2 elements - a number and a letter


What is element one of the aerodrome reference code system?

A number determined by selecting the higher value of declared take off distance available (TODA) or accelerate stop distance available (ASDA)
1 - Less than 800m
2 - 800m - 1200m (not inc)
3 - 1200m - 1800m (not inc)
4 - 1800m and over


What is element two of the aerodrome reference code system

A letter which corresponds to the wingspan or outer main gear wheel span, whichever is the more demanding, of the largest aircraft likely to be operating at the aerodrome. A-F


What are the principle requirements of runway surfaces?

Provide sufficient surface friction level.
Provide a hard durable surface that will not generate loose materials or contaminants.
Provide good surface water drainage.
Provide a suitable Pavement Classification Number (PCN) for aircraft operations
Avoid excessive tyre wear


What are the 3 types of runway surface materials

Porous Friction Course
Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC)
Asphalt (Grooved)


What is a starter extension?

Where additional runway distances are required for take-off, these may be achieved by adding a starter extension to the beginning of the runway


What is the turning area?

Where the end of a runway is not served by a taxiway, a runway turn pad should be provided to facilitate a 180 degree turn of aircraft.


What is the runway shoulder?

An area adjacent to the edge of a paved surface so prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface for aircraft running off the pavement.


Why have runway shoulders?

Strong crosswinds may result in deviation from the runway centreline.
Large aircraft with wing mounted engines may overhang the runway edge with the possibility of jet blast eroding the surface adjacent to the runway which can cause ingestion of debris into engines


When should runway shoulders be provided?

Where the code letter is D or E unless the runway width is 60m or more.
The overall width of the runway plus shoulder should not be less than 60m


What is the runway strip?

An area of specified dimensions enclosing a runway intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft running off the runway and to protect aircraft flying over it when taking-off or landing


What is the purpose of a runway strip?

Reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane running off the runway by providing a graded area which meets specified longitudinal and transverse slopes, and bearing strength requirements
Protect aeroplanes flying over is during landing or take off by providing an area which is clear of obstacles except permitted aids to navigation


If there are permitted aids within the runway strip what must they be?

Height must be kept to a minimum
If in cleared and graded area - not more than 0.9m in height and not closer than 15m from the edge of the runway


What aids can be inside the RWY strip?

Approach lights
ILS glidepath transmitter


What is the clear and graded area?

A delethalised area - minimum damage to aircraft if they leave the runway
Only essential equipment inside CGA
ALL rwy holding points are outside CGA


What is the stopway?

A Stopway is an area on the ground beyond the take-off run available (TORA) which is prepared and designated as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the event of an abandoned take-off.
Designed for infrequent use
Strong enough to support a/c using the rwy
Same width as rwy


What is a clearway?

An area at the end of the take-off run available, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aircraft may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.
Provide an area over which an aircraft can safely transit from lift off to the full climb rate after take-off, which is free from obstacles which may cause a hazard to aircraft in flight.


What is the runway end safety area?

An area symmetrical about the extended runway centerline and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway


What variables affect the length of the RESA?

A/C type
Level of a/c activity
Local conditions

Code 3 and 4 runway
Min 90 m
Recommended at least 240m