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Flashcards in Affirmative action Deck (11)
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Define equality of opportunity.

Equality of opportunity would provide the theoretical same amount of opportunities to individuals regardless of race or gender with the outcome of their lives being purely based upon their work ethic.


Define equality of outcome.

Equality of outcome results in all people achieving a relatively similar amount of personal wealth and standard of living.


What is affirmative action?

Affirmative action is a system of positive discrimination in which members of previously disadvantaged groups are given a head start in employment and and higher education.


What was the Gratz v Bollinger case (2003)

The court ruled (6-3) that the university of Michigan’s affirmative action for admissions for undergraduates was unconstitutional as it was too mechanistic towards it’s approach to admitting racial minorities.


How did the university approach it’s admitting of racial minorities?

Applicants who were black or Hispanic were automatically awarded 20 points of the 150 required to be admitted.


How did the Grutter v Bollinger case of 2003 differ to the Gratz v Bollinger case?

Unlike the previous court case the Supreme Court ruled (5-4) that the program was constitutional because the law school’s affirmative action used a more “individualised” approach towards the racial profiles of it’s students.


What did the Fisher v University of Texas (2013) case rule?

The court ruled that the use of race in it’s admission policy should be subject to stricter scrutiny because it involved possible discrimination.


What did Chief Justice Roberts comment on affirmative action.

“The way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race.”


What did public opinion polls show peoples opinions on affirmative action?

29% opposed 63% in favour.


When asked “do you think affirmative action programs to increase the number of black students in college campuses are good or bad the public answered.......

60% in favour 30% opposed.


When asked whether the affirmative action programmes were fair how did public opinion

42% saw them as unfair 47% saw them as fair.