Ageing Flashcards Preview

SBOMs > Ageing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ageing Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is sarcopenia?

The reduction of skeletal muscle mass, strength and performance with age

2

What does sarcopenia coexist with?

Frailty, multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy and falls

3

How is sarcopenia diagnosed?

Slow gate (Less than 4m in 5 seconds)
Poor grip strength (

4

Management of sarcopenia?

Progressive resistance exercise 2-3/week for at least 3 months
Regular increase in physical activity (walking)
Improved dietary intake (1-1.2g/kg body weight/day

5

Primary sarcopenia is due to?

Age
1-2% muscle mass lost each year after 40

6

Why is muscle lost each year after the age of 40?

Anabolic resistance, oxidative damage, decreased myofibre innervation

7

Secondary sarcopenia is due to?

Reduced physical activity (eg bed rest, zero gravity)
Poor nutrition (eg inadequate dietary protein intake, malabsorption)
Disease related (malignancy, inflammatory disease, endocrine)

8

Risk factors for 1º sarcopenia

Low birth weight
Poor growth during childhood and puberty
Obesity

9

What is SARC-F?

Assessment tool for sarcopenia
Ability to carry a heavy load, walk, rise from a chair, climb stairs and assess fall frequency

10

What is frailty?

A state of increased vulnerability to stressors due to reductions in physiologic reserve in multiple body systems.
Vulnerable to adverse health outcomes
Just about coping until 'trivial infection'

11

Signs and symptoms of frailty

Exhaustion
Weakness
Weight loss>5kg in year
Slow walking speed
Low physical activity

12

What is the anorexia of ageing?

Decreased olfaction, increased satiety
Poor dentition, impaired gut function
Decreased access to food/functioning

13

Interventions for frailty?

Dinner table, protected meal times
Feeding help and fortified food
Exercise and mobility (Tai Chi)

14

Why are long lies important to pick up?

Urinary retention-> UTI
AKI
Rhabdomyolysis
Hypothermia
Pressure sores

15

What is delerium?

Acute confusion secondary to a cause

16

What is delerium defined by?

Disturbance of consciousness (decreased attention)
Change in cognition or perceptual disturbance (incoherent/disorganised thinking)
Acute (hours/days) and fluctuant
Evidence of a cause

17

How common is delerium in intensive care and palliative care?

80% and 85%

18

What needs to be assessed in delerious patients?

Baseline functioning from collateral history
Time course
Drug and medical history
Vital signs, hydration
Bitten tongue, signs of head injury, fractures
Autonomic innervation
Any cranial nerve palsies/motor deficits

19

10 causes of delerium?

Drugs (opiates, polypharmacy)
Sensory deficits
Low PO2
Infection
Urinary/faecal retention
Ictal state
Underhydration/nutrition
Subdural haematoma
Pain
Glycaemic control