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Flashcards in Biology of attachment Deck (36)
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1

What is the traditional behavioural thesis of attachment?

Blank slate when born
Learning through conditioning
Importance of rewards
Culture transmits knowledge

2

What is the traditional psychoanalytic thesis of attachment?

Inborn instinct
Libidinal drive (seeking pleasure)
Stages of development
Unconscious process

3

Who did experiments on baby monkeys on attachment theory?

H Harlow

4

Who did attachment experiments with ducklings and found out they walk in lines instinctively but only triggered 2-8hrs after hatching?

Lorenz

5

How did Mary Ainsworth contribute to attachment theory?

Created 'the strange situation'
Tell whether mother and baby have a secure/insecure/disorganised attachment depending on reaction to first reunion

6

What does secure attachment predict for those children?

More resilient children, interact better with peers

7

What are the types of insecure attachment?

Avoidant
Ambivalent

8

What type of attachment predicts criminality and mental health difficulties?

Disorganised
No strategy for coping/health

9

How can you assess mothers on their attachment status?

Adult attachment interview
Produce and reflect on own memories of childhood
Produce coherent and collaborative discourse
Coherent and collaborative= autonomous
Minimal explanation=dismissive
Memory driven discourse=preoccupied
Unclassifiable=unresolved

10

How does the 'strange situation' outcome for babies link with mother's adult attachment status

Autonomous mother->secure attachment on child
Dismissive->Avoidant
Preoccupied->Ambivalent
Unresolved->Disorganised

11

What is attachment behaviour?

Any behaviour with the predictable outcome of increasing proximity to the attachment figure
-> with the aim of acquiring feeling of security

12

What are the 3 types of attachment behaviour?

Alert (calling)
Avert (crying)
Active (following)

13

What is an attachment behavioural system?

Set of behaviours that are coordinated, activate-able, goal corrected and organised by specific control systems (mental representations)

14

What are the things that make an emotional bond?

Persistent
Specific
Significant
Wish for contact
Distressed when separated
Seek for security (ONLY IN ATTACHMENT BOND)

15

Secure attachment relies on:

Availability
Sensitivity
Responsiveness

16

Sensitivity in mother predicts:

Quality of their attachment relationship
Self regulation
Social functioning
Cognitive and language competence

17

What happens when a child has no attachment figure?

Autistic traits
No eye contact
Need an attachment figure by aged 3 otherwise will never fully recover

18

What happens when the attachment figure abuses the child?

It strengthens the bond

19

What is the key concept in the biology of attachment?

The baby 'borrows' minds of their attachment figure until they have established their own control pathway

20

When does the human brain mainly develop?

Mainly in first 3 yrs of life
All connections and big changes happen before aged 5
Development and maturity in a social context has a biological advantage

21

What structures eventually develop into the brain?

Forebrain-> cortex
midbrain
hindbrain-> cerebellum, pons

22

What can cortical structures do?

Can inhibit structures deeper in the brain
They develop later
eg cortex thinking can inhibit limbic system feelings (CBT)

23

What is shore's hypothesis?

The baby brain is designed to use the structures of the mother's brain to manage the ones it already has, before they develop the ones that aren't yet functioning
As the different frontal structures get myelinated, they replace those of the mother's brain in regulating the baby's brain's function

24

Give an example of Shore's hypothesis

When baby's amygdala is activated in ager/distress it doesn't know why its unhappy
It causes baby to cry and mother to regulate the baby's distress
(eg feeding, changing nappy, temperature etc)
Mother and baby's brain synchronise at a biological level

25

What can be measured and shows synchrony in human relationships?

Cortisol
Prolactin
Testosterone
Oxytocin
Directed gaze
Arousal levels (pulse, bp)

26

What areas of the brain are activated when synchronous mothers watch their babies?

Dopamine structures

27

What areas of the brain are activated when non synchronous mothers watch their babies?

Amygdala (distress, arousal)

28

What parts of the brain are used in arousal?

Amygdala, ventral striatum

29

What parts of the brain are used in emotional regulation

Prefrontal cortex
ACC

30

What parts of the brain are used in cognition?

Insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex