Flashcards in Oncology Deck (28)
2 types of radiotherapy
External beam, brachytherapy
SE of radiotherapy
Fatigue, localised soreness, fibrosis, normal tissue damage
Cure rate of radiotherapy for localised disease?
Name 5 chemosensitive tumours
Choriocarcinoma, testicular cancer, leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, some sarcomas
Ablation is used in what cancer?
Localised liver, skin, kidney and lung cancer
What is classified as neutropenic sepsis? Treatment?
Start broad spectrum antibiotics immediately
Can be dead within 6 hours
Name 6 biomarkers used for personalised therapy
ER, PR receptors,
EGFR, ALK, BRAF mutations
Her-2 cell surface antigen
SE of chemotherapy
Nausea and vomiting and diarrhoea
risk of infection
Women's lifetime risk of breast cancer
12 risk factors for breast cancer
High breast density
Alcohol, overweight, not exercising
Not having children before 30
Not breast feeding
HRT/pill/early periods/late menopause
Previous breast cancer
Give some symptoms of breast cancer
Lump, pain, nipple discharge
Nipple retraction, breast distortion
Swelling, scaling nipple
In TMN staging, what classifies T3?
How do you diagnose breast cancer?
History & examination
Name some classes of systemic treatments for breast cancer
Hormone therapies, chemotherapy, biological therapy, bisphosphonates/denosumab
When does screening happen for breast cancer?
All women over the age of 50 get screened every 3years on a rolling basis until 70
Sensitivity and specificity of breast screening?
What % of cancer is detected by screening versus 2 week wait clinic after presentation to GP or self referral?
50% 2 week wait clinic
A well circumscribed breast lesion could be:
A stellate lesion on the breast could be:
Traumatic fat necrosis
What are the options for post mastectomy breast reconstruction?
Single sided padded bra/ breast prosthesis
Prosthetic reconstruction w/slwoly enlarging artificial implants
Latissimus dorsi reconstruction
Abdominal flap reconstruciton
Nipple reconstruction & tattoo
What proportion of breast cancer is hereditary? and what % are BRCA-1 or 2?
5-10%, almost all of these are thought to be BRCA-1 or 2
What is the risk of breast cancer if it is hereditary in your family (1º relatives before age of 50, man has had breast cancer, women w/cancer in both breasts)
Up to 80%
What are women with hereditary breast cancer in their family also at risk of?
Ovarian, colonic, pancreatic cancer
What are the common sites for breast cancer metastasis?
Lymph nodes (contralateral/axillary)
How many characteristics for cancer cells have been described by Hanahan and Weinberg?
2 types of apoptosis
Intrinsic and extrinsic
Intrinsic cell stress and DNA damage, growth factor removal, cell detatchment
Extrinsic cytotoxic T cells & NK cells -> initiator capsases
50% human cancers overexpress Bcl-2
Resistance to chemo and radiation