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Flashcards in Oncology Deck (28)
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1

2 types of radiotherapy

External beam, brachytherapy

2

SE of radiotherapy

Fatigue, localised soreness, fibrosis, normal tissue damage

3

Cure rate of radiotherapy for localised disease?

20-50%

4

Name 5 chemosensitive tumours

Choriocarcinoma, testicular cancer, leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, some sarcomas

5

Ablation is used in what cancer?

Localised liver, skin, kidney and lung cancer

6

What is classified as neutropenic sepsis? Treatment?

Neutrophils38º
Start broad spectrum antibiotics immediately
Can be dead within 6 hours

7

Name 6 biomarkers used for personalised therapy

ER, PR receptors,
EGFR, ALK, BRAF mutations
Her-2 cell surface antigen

8

SE of chemotherapy

Fatigue
Reversible alopecia
Nausea and vomiting and diarrhoea
risk of infection
Oral mucositis
Premature menopause

9

Women's lifetime risk of breast cancer

1/8

10

12 risk factors for breast cancer

Age, FH
High breast density
Alcohol, overweight, not exercising
Not having children before 30
Not breast feeding
HRT/pill/early periods/late menopause
Radiation exposure
Previous breast cancer
Ethnic group
Being taller

11

Give some symptoms of breast cancer

Lump, pain, nipple discharge
Nipple retraction, breast distortion
Swelling, scaling nipple
Metastatic symptoms

12

In TMN staging, what classifies T3?

>5cm

13

How do you diagnose breast cancer?

Triple assessment:
History & examination
Mammogram/ultrasound/MRI
Biopsy

14

Name some classes of systemic treatments for breast cancer

Hormone therapies, chemotherapy, biological therapy, bisphosphonates/denosumab

15

When does screening happen for breast cancer?

All women over the age of 50 get screened every 3years on a rolling basis until 70

16

Sensitivity and specificity of breast screening?

Sens: 83-95%
Spec: >80%

17

What % of cancer is detected by screening versus 2 week wait clinic after presentation to GP or self referral?

30% screening
50% 2 week wait clinic

18

A well circumscribed breast lesion could be:

Benign cyst
Benign fibroadenoma
Breast cancer
Breast lymphoma
Metastasis

19

A stellate lesion on the breast could be:

Breast cancer
Traumatic fat necrosis
Radial scar
Hyalinised fibroadenoma

20

What are the options for post mastectomy breast reconstruction?

Single sided padded bra/ breast prosthesis
Prosthetic reconstruction w/slwoly enlarging artificial implants
Latissimus dorsi reconstruction
Abdominal flap reconstruciton
Nipple reconstruction & tattoo

21

What proportion of breast cancer is hereditary? and what % are BRCA-1 or 2?

5-10%, almost all of these are thought to be BRCA-1 or 2

22

What is the risk of breast cancer if it is hereditary in your family (1º relatives before age of 50, man has had breast cancer, women w/cancer in both breasts)

Up to 80%

23

What are women with hereditary breast cancer in their family also at risk of?

Ovarian, colonic, pancreatic cancer
Melanoma

24

What are the common sites for breast cancer metastasis?

Lymph nodes (contralateral/axillary)
Bone, brain
Liver, lung

25

How many characteristics for cancer cells have been described by Hanahan and Weinberg?

10

26

2 types of apoptosis

Intrinsic and extrinsic
Intrinsic cell stress and DNA damage, growth factor removal, cell detatchment
Extrinsic cytotoxic T cells & NK cells -> initiator capsases

27

BCl-2?

50% human cancers overexpress Bcl-2
Resistance to chemo and radiation
Pro survival

28

What is ABT-737 and ABT-199?

BCL-2 inhibitor and BH-3 mimetic, inhibits pro survival molecules