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Flashcards in Global Health Deck (54)
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1

Name 4 potentially life threatening acute tropical infections

P. Falciparum malaria
Typhoid fever
Paratyphoid fever
Leptospirosis

2

Where is travellers diarrhoea most common? %?

India (1 week risk 54%)

3

What is the ABCD of malaria advice?

Aware of risk (fever up to 6 months after return)
Bite avoidance (DEET insect repellant, nets, long sleeves dawn till dusk)
Chemoprophylaxis compliance (duration, SE, cost)
Diagnose early

4

Name the 3 most commonly used malaria prophylaxis treatments

Malarone (proguanil +atovaquone)
Doxycycline
Mefloquine

5

How many vaccinations are covered by the green book?

27

6

What vaccinations are often legally required?

Yellow fever, meningococcus ACWY, Polio

7

List 5 common travel vaccines

Hep A
Typhoid
Yellow fever
Rabies
Meningococcal ACWY

8

What vaccines are legally required for the Hajj pilgrimage?

Meningococcal ACWY
Polio & yellow fever if from a country at risk

9

What is Ebola?

A viral haemorrhagic fever

10

Name the 6 most affected countries by Ebola

Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Senegal, Nigeria, Mali

11

Signs and symptoms of Ebola

Fever
Headache
Weakness (more fatal)
Dizziness (more fatal)
Diarrhoea (more fatal)
Abdo pain
Sore throat
Vomiting
Conjunctivitis

12

Treatment of Ebola

No cure
Supportive care
IV fluids
Antimalarials
Antibiotics

13

What was the likely viral reservoir for Ebola?

Fruit bats

14

Peak incidence of infection (age) for Ebola?

15-18yrs, 26-40yrs

15

Incubation period? Death? (Ebola, %)

6-12 days
8-9 days

16

Fatality? (%, Ebola)

74%

17

How was it transmitted? (Ebola)

Through contact with bodily fluids

18

What made the outbreak worse? (Ebola)

Delayed recognition and response
Fear & distrust of authorities
Limited sanitation and overcrowding
Long incubation, no vaccine and no treatment
Fluid borders
Poor infrastructure and healthcare resources

19

What are emerging infections driven by?

Increased global travel
Environmental and climate change (deforestation, flooding, drought, urbanisation)
Political instability and breakdown of public health measures
Widespread antibiotic use
Decline in immunisation
Better diagnostics

20

What is MERS?

Middle eastern respiratory sydrome
Coronavirus
Camels likely host
Mainly in Saudi Arabia
36% mortality

21

Name the last 3 influenza pandemics

2006 novel H1N1 swine flu
H5N1 avian flu, Hong Kong
H7N9 avian flu, Far East

22

What species of mosquito spreads malaria?

Anopheles mosquito

23

How many types of malaria are there?

5

24

What type of malaria is the most deadly? Deaths a year?

P. Falciparum, 0.5mill deaths a year

25

Where are most deaths from P. Falciparum located?

Sub Saharan Africa:
Kenya, Angola, Zambia, Tanzania, Sierra Leone

26

What stage of plasmodium parasite is inoculated into the blood stream by the mosquito?

Sporozoite

27

What stage of the plasmodium is found in liver cells?

Hypnozoites

28

How long is the liver multiplication stage?

5-12 days

29

What stage of the plasmodium enters the bloodstream from the liver?

Merozoites

30

What stage of the plasmodium is found when it invades RBCs?

Trophozoite