Flashcards in Ageing, MS and PD Deck (38)
What is ageing?
accumulating damage to molecules such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)
What are the 2 biological changes with ageing?
Senescence or biological ageing occurs naturally with the passage of time or the effects of disuse and disease (environmental damage gradually causes organs to malfunction)
What are some theory of ageing?
1)oxidative damage from free radicals damage the mitochondria which leads to progression of ageing
2)poor cell membrane permeability leads to impaired cellular communication
3)glucose attaches to proteins and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) leading to cross linking so protein becomes impair and cannot function efficiently.
4)DHEA declines as we age
5) Antigenic load triggers immune response (chronic inflammation) which damaged organs
6) Gradual decline of immune system due to atrophy of thymus gland (regulates B and T cells)
What is the Hayflicks phenomenon?
limit to cellular dividing so the number of divisions are significantly reduced.
Which cell is the exception to Hayflicks phenomenon?
intestinal epithelial cells divide throughout life and have no limit
What is the allostatic load theory of ageing?
person's ageing is due to interactions amongst genetics, stress, lifestyle, diet and environmental challenges
List 5 overlapping causes of ageing
mitochondrial function impaired
poor immune function
How does physical activity reduce ageing?
generate ROS causes our body to up-regulate antioxidant enzyme pathways, reduces inflammation, regulates hormones, maintain healthy body weight, promotes stress coping, prevent telomere shortening
How does coping with stress prevent ageing?
chronic stress affects immune system and lowers thymus function, chronic levels of cortisol and inflammatory processes
How can you cope with stress better?
8 hours of sleep every day; continued enjoyment of living, spend time outdoors, daily regime
How do you reduce toxic load?
no tobacco products, avoid alcohol, reduce processed food, reduce sugar, assess food and environmental allergies, reduce heavy metal exposure
Why does a healthy diet prevent ageing?
reduces inflammation, healthy cell membrane, improve mitochondrial function, reduces ROS, balances hormones
What are some anti-ageing nutrition tips?
minimum of 3 non-starchy vege a day, 1-2 fruits per day, avoid stimulants, increased nuts and seeds, high fish diet, increases 2 L of water, fibre high, fermented foods included
What are some anti-ageing diets?
mediterranean diet, low GI diet, anti-inflammatory diet, rotation diet, caloric restrictions diet (by 40%), intermittent fasting (e.g. 5:2)
What plant phenols are good for anti-ageing?
antioxidant food, quercetin (onion), reservatrol (grapes), flavanoids (citrus), curcumin (tumeric), carotenoids (carrots, peppers, sweet pot)
What teas help anti-ageing?
green tea, black tea (slow down atherosclerotic plaque), matcha green tea
How does turmeric helps anti-ageing?
modulates T-cell activity, antioxidant, prevent alzheimers and cognitive decline
What are some risk factors for poor nutrition in elderly?
Decreased food intake due to changes in taste, less activity, social isolation, lack of cooking, missing teeth, medications so avoid certain foods or can affect appetite or taste/smell, dementia or stoke or other diseases may prevent proper eating
What is the advice for exercise in elderly and why is it important?
it prevents cognitive declines and increases longevity so they should do half an hour at least 5 days a week
What is dementia?
syndrome with ongoing decline of brain, impaired memory, language, personality, intelligence.
What are some early signs of dementia?
not recognising everyday objects, disoriented to place, confused thinking
What is the pathophysiology of dementia?
neurological tangles in brain tissue, Lewy bodies develop, vascular dementia (not enough blood circulation in parts in the brain), frontotemporal dementia ( frontal and temporal lobes begin to shrink)
What are some other causes of dementia?
toxic accumulating, trauma, vitamin deficiency, medication use, poor mitochondria function, viral infection
What is alzheimers?
primary degenerative brain disease of unknown aetiology that is insidious in onset followed by gradual deterioration and death
What is the pathophysiology of alzheimers?
amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in cerebrocortex and hippocampal formation which attack nerve cells in cortex of brain which impair's persons ability
What are the contributing factors for alzheimers?
type 3 diabetes can cause mitochondrial dysfunction and anti-microbial mechanism is not optimal (amyloid beta protects brain from microbes so low immunity in elderly means it is easier for microbes to enter brain), genetic connection
What is the gene which increases risk of alzheimers?
apolipoprotein E gene
How is CVD connected with alzheimers?
beta amyloid is in arterial plaques
how is zinc connected with alzheimers?
zinc is deficient in patients and binds to amyloid beta promoting its aggregation in neurotoxic spa and disrupts zinc homeostasis resulting in memory problems