Flashcards in Cancer Deck (74)
Explain why cancer is due to mitochondrial failure.
lack of oxygen, nutrients, toxins, stress, leading on cellular defects and mutated genes
Explain what is meant by cancer.
unregulated growth is caused by damage to DNA resulting in mutations to genes that control cell division.
What are some cellular considerations associated with cancer?
mitochondrial failure, increased DNA damaged, increased activity of chemokines, increased activity of cytokines, increased hormonally, alteration in cell cycle, activation of silent oncogenes, genomic instability
How are cancer cells altered?
self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, limitless replicative potential, evasion of apoptosis, ability to produce sustained angiogenesis, ability to invade and metastasis.
How does apoptosis influence cancer?
apoptosis occurs when stress events damage DNA and cancer is initiated by DNA damage so there must be dysregulation of apoptosis for cancer to occur
What are the 4 stages of cancer?
I) early, local tissue
II) spread to surrounding tissues
III) metastasised to lymph nodes
IV) spread to distant organs
What is meant by in situ?
abnormal cells but they have stayed in local area
What is meant by localised?
cancer is not spread and localised to organ
What is meant by regional?
cancer has spread to nearby organs or lymph nodes
What is meant by distant?
spread to distant tissue or organs or lymph nodes
What is meant by oncogenes?
genes that code for one of the typical behaviour of cancer cells e.g. growth, failure to apoptosis
How do oncogenes become active?
mutation or epigenetic modification where gene becomes active
What are 5 environmental lifestyle effect contributing to cancer?
smoking, diet, alcohol, infectious agents, environmental pollutants, radiation, stress and emotional issues
What is the cancer volcano?
low NK cells, low fat and water soluble antioxidants, leads to production of oncoproteins so cells mitosis happens, then changes cell cycle and gene mutation happens leading to cellular oxidation damage
What are the primary goals of cancer?
support tumoricidal effects of allopatric treatment, reduce side effect of treatment and support overall wellness
What are secondary goals of cancer?
support immunity, reduce tumour-promoting factors, inhibit metastasis and tumour progression, promote appropriate apoptosis
What dietary promoters increase the risk of cancer?
damaged fats, excess protein, calories, sugar and poor omega6:3 ratio (6:1) causes increased oestrogen, insulin, IGF-1, inflammation, up regulate oncogenes
What are some dietary carcinogens (new cancer cell created)?
aflatoxins (mouldy food), heterocyclic amines (meat cooked at high temps), N-nitroso compounds (spoiled food and cured meats), PAH (smoked foods)
What can promote cancer cell?
excess and damaged fats (further damaged DNA), excess protein (increase IGF-1 so increase cancer cell growth), excess omega 6 (promotes further cancer growth)
Why is red meat a risk for cancer?
heterocyclic amines produced when meat is cooked, especially charcoal and smoke curing of meant can be cancerous
What cancer is common with high sugar consumption?
pancreatic cancer because increased insulin demand and decreased insulin sensitivity due to hyperglycaemia
What cancer is at risk with high salt diet and high salt food?
What cancers are linked to high levels of aspartame?
Explain how aspartame causes damage.
aspartame is split into amino acids and methyl group, methyl group is converted to formaldehyde which causes severe damage to NS and immune system and genetics
How much do you need to drink to increase the risk of bowel cancer to 60%
more than seven drinks a week
How much wine do you need to increase the risk of breast and colon cancer?
1 glass of wine daily increases risk by 10% for colon and 7% for breast
What cancer are you at risk for obesity?
colorectal cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer,
What are the mechanisms of obesity to cause cancer?
excess body fat changes hormone metabolism, oestrogen levels are higher in obese people, excess body fat causes oxidative DNA damage, changes in insulin metabolism, negative effects of immune system
How does leptin lead to cancer?
stimulates cell proliferation