Flashcards in Pregnancy and paediatrics Deck (83)
What is the blastogenesis stage?
fertilized ovum divides and implants itself in the uterus
What is the embryonic stage?
all rudiments for the principle organs and membranes develop
What is the foetal stage?
most rapid period of growth
What is normal weight gain like in pregnancy?
What are maternal obesity at risk for?
pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, infants develop anomalies and neural tube defects
What are the risk when underweight?
low birth weight, prematurity, higher miscarriage rates
How many extra calories a day do pregnant women need?
How much extra protein is needed for pregnant women?
6-10g a day
What are some symptoms of pregnancy?
cramping, nausea, vomiting, increase in abdominal girth, changes to bowel, increased urinary freq, palpitations, heart murmurs
When is cramping concerning in pregnancy?
cramping is worsening or associated with vaginal bleeding as maybe a sign of ectopic pregnancy, threatened abortion or missed abortion
What can we do to reduce the risk of food poisoning in pregnancy?
raw or partially cooked eggs, unpasteurised dairy products, do not drink contaminated water, wash hands after touching raw meat, take care with food left uncovered on a warm plate
What is toxoplasmosis?
infection caused by a parasite found in cat faeces or raw/uncooked meat or soil left on unwashed fruit and vege
What 5 things can be done to reduce toxoplasmosis?
unwashed raw fruit and vege, raw uncooked meat, cured meats (salami), unpasteurised goats milk/cheese, avoid contact with soil or faeces
What is important with vitamin A and pregnancy?
Do not supplement as it can result in defects
But beta-carotene is not teratogenic (vit A precursor)
Why is it important to supplement folate or folic acid in pregnancy?
folic acid is important for DNA synthesis and cell replication and deficiency is linked with neural tube defects
Why is it important to supplement iron in pregnancy?
iron deficiency anaemia is the most common pregnancy complication
What advise is there on fish and pregnancy?
fish intake needs to limit to 2 oily fish a week (mercury levels)
What disease has fish oil reduced when the foetus became an adult?
Explain why DHA is important for pregnancy.
high in retinal and brain membrane phospholipids which is involved in neural function and neurotransmitter metabolism
Explain what happens when there is vitamin D3 deficiency in pregnancy.
Vit D deficiency is linked to maternal skeletal preservation and foetal skeletal formation
What happens when there is iodine/calcium deficiency in pregnancy?
low thyroid function due to low iodine intake increases the risk of infant lower IQ and calcium is a major part of the bone
How does zinc deficiency affect pregnancy?
zinc deficiency impairs learning and memory by reducing NMDA receptor expression which is responsible for creating plasticity changes in brain
How does magnesium supplement help with pregnancy?
reduce risk of foetal growth retardation, pre-elampsia and increased birth weight
What to do if the pregnant women is on a vegetarian and vegan diet?
possible deficiencies in vit D3, zinc, iron and B12
What are some lifestyle guidelines for pregnancy?
Moderate exercise, avoid contact sport, do not scuba dive
What is the guideline for caffeine and pregnancy?
caffeine should be lower than 100mg/d especially in early pregnancy
What else do you need to avoid in pregnancy?
chemical solvents and pesticide during pregnancy can increase risk of childhood cancer and primary exposure to radiographs, workplace radiation and environmental exposure so can also lead to cancer in childhood
Why does lead put a pregnant woman at risk?
high levels lead to stillbirths and abortion found in lead based paints, leaded petrol
Explain how mercury can affect pregnancy?
can affect CNS