Flashcards in Fertility, Mens health and urinary system Deck (75)
What are the ureters?
propel urine from the kidneys to the bladder
What is the urethra?
emerges from the end of penis and between cliltoris and vagina in females
What are the 6 functions of the urinary system?
excretion of metabolic waste, regulation of water and electrolyte balance, regular acid-base balance, produce hormones, regulation of arterial pressure, gluconeogenesis
What are the 4 products of metabolic waste?
urea, creatinine, uric acid, bilirubin
How does the kidney regulate acid-base balanced?
excreting acid, regulates body fluid buffer system
What is cystitis?
inflammation of the bladder
Why is cystitis so prevalent in women?
short length of urethra so bacteria or pathogens will travel to female bladder easily
What are some risk factors of cystitis?
sexual activity, douching and washing use (tampon use), diabetes (high sugar = more chance of infection), pregnancy, recent antibiotic use (affect health microflora), immunosupression
What does incomplete voiding of bladder mean?
the bladder pools in and urine accumulates there which can cause infection
What are 5 symptoms of cystitis?
dysuria, urinary frequency, bladder fullness, suprapubic tenderness, blood in urine, flank pain, fevers, chills and malaise (infection)
How can cystitis be diagnosed?
dipstick, urinalysis, culture, infected urine (high levels of white blood cells and low-grade proteinuria
What is the red flag for cystitis?
fever, chills, vomiting, nausea, lower back pain
What is the orthodox treatment?
How does cranberry help with cystitis?
binds to the E-Coli and prevents it from binding to the bladder wall (anti-adhesion activity); prevents adhesion of type 1 and p-fimbriae strains (E-coli) to urothelium
What are 5 nutritional therapy actions for cystitis?
Eliminates refined food, caffeine, alcohol, sugar
Avoid sexual activity
Drink plenty of fluids
reduce pro-inflammatory food
Emphasise food high in anti-inflammatory EFA (oily fish), address contraceptive and tampon use.
What is the contraindication for cranberry?
stomach distress, diarrhoea or increase risk of kidney stones (caution with anti-coangulates, blood thinning med or meds affecting liver or aspirin)
What is a sugar which also is anti-adhesion (prevents E-coli from binding to bladder wall) for cystitis? What are 2 food sources?
What is interstitial cystitis?
Chronic inflammatory condition of bladder wall
How is interstitial cystitis diagnosed?
1- chronic bladder irritation
2-characteristic findings on cystoscopy of glomerulations (small haemorrhages)
3- lack of any other causes for the symptoms and evidence of bladder compromised
How can leaky bladder urothelium cause inflammation and pain?
there is problem with glycoaminoglycan layer of the bladder epithelium which results in an increased permeability of potassium into bladder wall causing inflammation and pain
How are food sensitivities linked to IC? What can you do for food allergies?
food sensitivities increase inflammation so eliminating food sensitivities reduces inflammation and repeated ingestion of a food allergen could easily explain the chronic interstitial cystitis
What foods need to be avoided with IC?
tomatoes, alcohol, smoking, artificial sweeteners, caffeine, soda, citrus, juices, chilli, spicy food
What nutrients need to be increased for IC?
Arginine - NO production, chondroitin sulphate + glucosamine (repair muscosal damage), MSM (anti-inflammatory), quercetin (inhibits histamine release)
What is the function of the prostate gland?
store and secrete a clear, slightly basic fluid that constitutes 1/3 of vol of semen
What is prostatitis?
an infection or inflammation of prostate gland
What are the symptoms of prostatitis?
urological - increase freq of urination, pain in testicles, problems ejaculating, infection from urinary tract, blood in urine, nocturne, fever with chills, recurrent infections
What are the 4 types of prostatitis?
chronic nonbacterial - abnormally high inflammatory cells
prostadynia -non-bacteria but does not contain inflammatory cells
acute bacteria - life threatening
chronic bacteria - reoccurs, difficult to cure
What are 4 risk factors of prostatitis?
UTI in past, indwelling urinary catheter, prostate biopsy, STI, HIV, functional problem with urinary tract, anal sex, pelvic injury
What is the diagnosis of prostatitis?
urine analysis, digital rectal examination