Aging Process and Associated Conditions (Week 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Aging Process and Associated Conditions (Week 2) Deck (95)
1

circadian rhythm

physical, mental, health behaviors that follow 24hr cycle - responding primarily to light and darkness

2

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

controls the internal clock by starting the release of hormone melatonin in the evening and cortisol in the morning

3

Melatonin

health-promoting functions - low melatonin is a sign that the SCN is dysfunctioning; can lead to illnesses including cancer diabetes and heart disease

4

rods and cones

photoreceptors in the eyes that provide concious vision

5

retinal ganglion cells

photoreceptors the communicate directly with the brain and are responsive to the blue part of light

6

Younger population exposed to blue light experience (3)

1. increased alertness
2. decreased sleepiness
3. improved mood

7

cataract surgery

removes the clouded lenses and implants clear intraocular lenses

8

Post cataract surgery changes(3)

decreased insomnia
decreased daytime sleepiness
improved reaction time

9

macular degeneration

age-related eye disease that causes vision loss

10

Majority of older adults are

female

11

Men are married longer because

men die earlier than women leaving them widowers

12

Highest cause of death

heart disease

13

young old

65-74

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old

75-84

15

old-old

85-99

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oldest-old

100+

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sandwich generation

adults in their 30s and 40s raising their kids and taking care of their parents

18

Annual cost of physical frailty

$54-80 Billion and rising

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morbidity

absence of health - disease

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co-morbidities

more than one disease that affects each other ex - COPD and CHF or Diabetes and heart disease

21

older adults function representing more than the loss of the physiological system

Continue occupations by adapting to the loss

22

older adults function representing less than the loss of the physiological system

Stops occupations and activities causing more comorbidities

23

Hayflick Limit Theory

cells stop reproducing at a certain age and organs start dying at a genetically programmed time

24

Damage Inflicted Model

the body accumulates all the damage done to it through the years and can no longer repair; loss of function and system failure (non-genetic)

25

Sarcopenia(4)

1. decrease in the number of muscle fibers and decrease in the size of muscle fibers = Muscle wasting
2. Decrease in firing rates
3. Decrease in power
4. Increase time in contracting

26

Which hormones impact muscle contraction?

GH
DHEA
Testosterone

27

Muscle power

the ability to contract and move quickly

28

How do we counter sarcopenia?

resistive exercises

29

Loss of number of muscle fibers means that we can't _____

grow muscle (look decreased; normal part of aging)

30

After 40yrs old our bones change by _______

increased absorption compared to laying down

31

compact (cortical) bone

hard skeleton

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cancellous (trabecular) bone

fibrous strands at ends of bones

33

Who loses more bone mass?

Women 1%/yr (men .5%/yr)

34

What increases the process that deteriorates bone while impairing cells that manufacture bone?

Menopause

35

Interventions for bone loss (3)

1. calcium supplementation
2. medication
3. weight-bearing activities

36

Osteopenia bone mineral density = _______

-1.0 to -2.5 (on it's way to osteoporosis

37

Osteoporosis bone mineral density = __________

> 2.5

38

osteomalacia

pathologically unable to lay down new bone

39

Ways to prevent osteopenia (3)

healthy lifestyle
WB physical activity
healthy eating

40

connective tissues (5)

ligaments, joint capsules, tendons, intramuscular connective tissue, cartilage

41

Biochemical changes in connective tissue (2)

1. increase in amnt and diameter of collagen
2. decrease in water, elastin, and proteoglycan content

42

what happens to connective tissue as it ages ? (2)

becomes stiffer and loses tensile strength
causes fibrillation of articular cartilage

43

Increased collagen = ________

increased stiffness

44

How do we counter aging of connective tissue?

Flexibility excersises

45

Aging changes of the Heart (5)

1. increase left ventricular wall thickness
2. increase in arterial thickness and stiffness
3. valves become thickened (heart murmur)
4. Decreased max. HR
5. Increase in SBP, DBP stays consistent

46

How do we counter aging of the heart? (2)

1. physical activity
2. proper diet

47

What causes the slightly elevated HR and BP in the again heart?

Thickening of the valves

48

220-your age =

the HR needed to be reached during physical activity for healthy heart

49

Aging change in the vascular system

Connective tissue of the vascular system stiffens and thickens affecting the baroreceptors causing change in the vascular system and change in blood flow

50

orthostatic hypotension
1. How much does it change
2. Occurs in what age range?
3. Symptoms
4. Always consider ________

1. SBP drops 20 mmHG
2. occurs in 30-50% >75yrs of age
3. Dizziness, confusion, weakness, fainting
4. always consider drug-induced side effects

51

treatment of orthostatic hypotension (2)

deep breathing
wait

52

50% of older adults have some degree of _________

heart disease

53

Cardiac-Vascular Pathology (3)

1. Arteriosclerosis
2. Coronary heart disease (CHD)
3. Coronary artery disease (CAD)

54

As an occupational therapist when changing a warm up routine you should_________

check clients vitals before and after

55

Aging of lungs(4)

The change in connective tissue decreases lung elasticity and thoracic expansion.
Muscles less effective
Decreased vital capacity
Increased residual volume

56

Aging of olfaction

decrease in sense of smell

57

Aging of Gustation(3)

Decrease in # of taste buds
Decreased # of neurons in taste center of the brain
Alteration in taste cell membranes

58

Aging of Ingestion (3)

Psychological stress, food preparation
Decreased fluid intake
Dentition

59

Changes in connective tissue causes changes in ______

Body composition

60

Aging Digestion and absorption (3)

1. decreased secretion of digestive enzymes
2. hepatic and biliary insufficiency
3. atrophy of intestinal mucosa & musculature

61

Aging Metabolism (4)

1. impaired glucose use
2. decrease renal function
3. changes in mineral & vitamin metabolism
4. decline in BMR

62

Metabolism decreased by 2%/decade after age ____

30

63

Weight loss of aging adults is due to (3)

1. decreased H2O
2. Decreased appetite
3. Decrease in muscle mass

64

Decreased muscle mass leads to an increase in ______

body fat

65

Aging Endocrine System (4)

1. decrease in glucose tolerance causes an increase in insulin response
2. Gradual decrease in the release of thyroid hormones =decrease in basal metabolic rate
3. Decrease in GH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
4. decrease in melatonin

66

Normal aging puts us a higher risk for _____

diabetes

67

We can counter the decrease in our basal metabolic rate by _______

increasing physical activity

68

Melatonin decreases significantly after age ____

40

69

Older Adult sleep patterns(3)

1. Decreased length of sleep
2. Change in sleep stage patterns
3. Decreased sleep quality

70

Aging Genitourinary system (6)

1. decrease in # and size of nephrons
2. decrease in kidney mass
3. Reduced bladder elasticity (connective tissue), muscle tone, and capacity
4. increased evening output
5. Decrease in sphincter control
6. Urethra shortens and its lining becomes thinner

71

Decrease in kidney mass means the kidney is ______

less able to concentrate urine and clear drugs

72

sensation

the neural activity triggered by a stimulus that activates a sensory receptor and results in sensory nerve impulses traveling the sensory nerve pathways to the brain

73

perception

the multi-stage process that takes place in the brain and includes selecting, processing, organizing and integrating information received from the senses

74

myopia

near-sighted

75

hyperopia

far-sighted

76

visual acuity

sharpness of sight

77

accommodation

a process by which the eye adjusts and is able to focus

78

presbyopia

decline in accomodation

79

Causes of the decline in acuity (3)

1. cornes and lense thicken
2. decrease in iris and pupil functioning
3. need more light for reading and to detect objects

80

The decrease in dark adaption, contrast sensitivity and color vision is due to

changes in retina and a loss of photoreceptors

81

VER

visual evoked response

82

Slowness in VER due to (2)

1. decrease in # of axons in the optic nerve
2. processing changes in the occipital cortex

83

decrease in ocular motor functions (3)

1. compromised convergence
2. Restricted upward gaze
3. reduce smooth pursuit

84

Cataracts

a cloudiness or opacity in the normally transparent crystalline lens of the eye. This cloudiness can cause a decrease in vision and may lead to eventual blindness.

85

Cataracts can be

removed

86

Menopauses impact on bones

-decrease in estrogen = decrease in absorption of calcium
- increases the process that deteriorates bone while impairing cells that manufacture bone

87

Changes in a Women's Genitourinary System (3)

1. Vaginal walls become less elastic and thinner
2. Vagina becomes shorter & secretions become scanty & watery
3. Atrophy or the external genital tissue

88

Changes in Men's Genitourinary System (3)

1. Testicular tissue mass decreases
2. Sperm cell production slows
3. Prostate gland enlarges and is replaced by fibrotic tissue

89

Signs of visual aging (4)

1. squinting
2. unusual head movements to align gaze
3. closing one eye
4. decreased coordination or abnormal reaching

90

The aging Auditory system causes functional impairment by what age?

70

91

Conductive Hearing Loss

occurs when there is a problem conducting sound waves anywhere along the route through the outer ear, tympanic membrane (eardrum), or middle ear (ossicles)

92

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)

type of hearing loss, or deafness, in which the root cause lies in the inner ear (cochlear), vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII), or central processing centers of the brain

93

What is presbycusis?

age-related progression of hearing

94

What are the signs of presbycusis? (3)

1. loss of hair cells in organ of Corti.
2. degenerative changes of cochlea nerve fiber
3. Trophic changes of cochlea nerve fibers

95

Normal aging changes for the auditory system are (6)

1. Functional impairment beyond 70
2. Conductive hearing loss
3. Sensorineural hearing loss
4. Presbycusis
5. Decrease in frequency sensitivity
6. Information processing