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Flashcards in Airframe Chapter 03 Deck (34)
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What are the three forms of wood commonly used in aircraft construction?

Solid , laminated, and plywood.


What type of wood should be used when splicing or reinforcing plywood webs?

The same type of plywood as originally used.


Name at least four different types of defects found in wood.

Knots, checks, splits, pitch pockets, cross grain, curly grain, decay, dry rot, etc.


Can a section of wood containing a hard knot be used?

Yes, within specified limits.


What type of glue may have been used in older wooden aircraft construction that requires careful inspection to detect deterioration?

Casein glue.


What are the three types of glue used in modern aircraft construction and repair?

Resorcinol glue, Phenol-formaldehyde glue, and epoxy resin glue.


Is compression wood acceptable for structural repairs?



Why should the various pieces of wood being joined be kept in the same room for at least 24 hours prior to joining?

To allow the moisture content to equalize, thereby minimizing dimensional changes in the wood.


Why is it important to consider the open-assembly time when gluing wooden structures?

If the maximum open-assembly time is exceeded, the joint may fail since the glue may begin setting up before the joint is assembled.


Why is it important to apply the proper clamping pressure to a glue joint?

Clamping forces air out of the joint, brings the wood surfaces together evenly and is, in part, responsible for the strength of the glue line.


Describe some of the methods used to apply pressure to glue joints.

Clamp, nailing strips, power press machines, brads, nails, and small screws.


What minimum curing temperature should be observed when joining wood with various adhesives?

70 degrees Fahrenheit or as specified by the glue manufacturer.


When inspecting wood structures, why might it be important to consider stains and discolored areas?

Stains and discoloration usually accompany decay and/or rot.


Describe the acceptable methods used to repair elongated bolts holes found in a wooden wing spar.

Remove the section containing the elongated hole and splice in a new section or replace the entire spar.


What type of joint is used to splice a solid or rectangular wood spar?

A scarf joint.


In what area are splices to a wood spar prohibited?

Under an attachment fitting for the wing root, landing gear, engine-mount, lift, or inter-plane strut.


What is the maximum number of splices allowed for any single spar?



Describe the characteristics of a scarf joint.

The pieces to be joined are tapered or beveled on a slope of 1 to 10 or 1 to 12.


Why must the beveled cut be accurate on both pieces of wood being repaired with a scarfed joint?

The two pieces must match exactly to ensure a tight glue joint.


What are the two primary uses for plywood in aircraft construction?

Gusset (or reinforcing) plates and aircraft skin.


Provide examples of at least three types of plywood skin repairs.

Splayed patches, surface patches, plug patches, and scarfed patches.


What type of patch should be used to repair small holes in thin plywood skin if the skin is less than 1/10th inch thick?

A splayed patch may be used if the hole can be cleared out to a diameter of less than 15 thicknesses of the skin.


What should be done to prevent a plywood patch and the pressure plate from sticking together if glue is extruded for the joint.

Place a piece of waxed paper or vinyl plastic between the patch and the pressure plate.


Why are lightweight steel bushings sometimes used in wooden structures?

Bushings prevent the wood from being crushed when bolts are tightened.


What is the purpose of large surface area washers when used on wooden structures?

Large washers provide additional bearing area for hardware to help preclude damage to the wood when the hardware is tightened.


Name several facings and core materials used in bonded honeycomb structures intended for special applications.

Stainless steel, titanium, magnesium, plywood, glass, nylon, and cotton cloth.


Describe the construction of a bonded honeycomb structure.

It is a laminated structure that has a solid facing bonded to either side of a core consisting of open, six-sided cells.


What must be done with a damaged area in a bonded honeycomb structure prior to beginning repairs?

The damaged area must be completely removed.


A drill bit used for drilling composites should have an included angle of how many degrees?

135 degrees.


What are the most common causes for delamination of a composite structure?

Sonic vibration,expansion of internal moisture, liquid leakage, and a manufacturing error.