Flashcards in Alsace, Jura, Savoie Deck (149):
When did Alsace receive AOC status?
1962 - it was the last major French region to do so
When percentage of Cremant d'Alsace Rosé must be Pinot Noir?
Where are the vineyards of Alsace located? What is the best exposure?
-Thin strand along the lower slopes and foothills of the Vosges
-Aspect is very important
-Southern, southeastern, & warm eastern exposures
Alsace is said to be a geological mosaic, what different soil types are located there?
-The local-pink sandstone (Grés de Vosges)
Can VT wines show bortytis?
Yes, but emphasize varietal purity
Are Vendange Tardive wins required to be dry?
Not obligated by statute to be sweet, the wines can vary in actual sugar, and can be quite dry
What is the workhorse for Cremant d'Alsace?
Since when must standard Alsatian AOP Riesling be dry?
2008 vintage forward
What was Pinot Gris formerly known as in Alsace?
Tokay d'Alsace or Tokay Pinot Gris
What are the major requirements in the vineyard for Grand Cru wines?
-Min sugar must be higher than Alsace AOP
-Yields are more restrictive than Alsace AOP
What are the min ABV's for Alsatian Grand Cru wines?
-Riesling & Muscat - 11%
-Gewurztraminer & Pinot Gris - 12.5%
What is France's smallest "région"?
What are the two departments of Alsace? Which is generally considered the best?
What steadily replaced Traminer in Alsace through the latter half of the 19th century?
Gewurztraminer (a pink berried clone of Traminer)
What is the synonym for Savagnin in Alsace?
What is "Grés de Vosges"?
A local pink sandstone that can be found throughout Alsace
What soil is generally found on the steeper mountain slopes?
What AOP in Alsace allows for noble and some non-noble grapes to be bottled varietally? What percentage must it contain? What is the exception?
-Alsace AOP aka Vin d'Alsace AOP
-Except Pinot Blanc - often blended w/the similar, but non synonymous, Auxerrois
-Even if Auxerrois is bottled as a single variety, it may be labeled Pinot Blanc
What non-noble varieties may be bottled varietally as Alsace AOP?
What are the permitted varieties for Cremant d'Alsace?
What are the min must weights for VT wines?
-Muscat & Riesling - 235 g/l
-Pinot Gris & Gewurztraminer - 257g/l
What is the smallest & largest Grand Cru vineyards in Alsace?
What are the main points of controversy for the Alsatian Grand Cru system?
-Rapid development of the system
-The lack of intermediary premier cru level
Klevener vs Gewurztraminer
Klevener is less intensely aromatic than GW but higher in acidity
What is edelzwicker?
An inexpensive blend
-Do not need to vintage dated
-Not required to be more than one grape (in practice they are blends)
-Do not need to indicate any % of grapes on the label
What portion of Alsatian production is sparkling?
Nearly a quarter
Where is Lorraine located?
Neighboring region to Alsace
What Grand Cru does Trimbach's Clos-Ste-Hune Riesling come from?
What is the synonym for Pinot Blanc in Alsace?
What is the synonym for Chasselas in Alsace?
What is Gentil?
-A designation for blends
-Min 50% noble grapes - any other Alsace AOP grape may make up the rest
-Base wines are vinified separately
Who is the staunchest advocate for field blends as the best approach for emphasizing Alsatian terroir?
What soil do the lower slopes of Alsace sit on?
Limestone base w/rich alluvial clay and gravel
What portion of Alsace AOP wine is white?
-18% of France's still white production (2008)
Wine simply labeled "Pinot" may contain any proportion of what related varieties?
What varietal is the largest volume of production for Alsace?
Pinot Blanc & Auxerrois - when considered collectively
What house chooses not to promote admissible wines as Alsace Grand Cru AOP?
(Trimbach does not label their Clos Ste Hune as Rosacker, but as of '09 they released Geisberg Grand Cru)
What is the only red variety permitted to be Alsace AOP?
What are the AOPs of Lorraine?
-Côtes de Toul AOP
What is Côtes de Toul AOP?
-Red - Pinot Noir (light)
-Rosé - pale vin gris style
-From a high proportion of Gamay & Pinot Noir
-White - Auxerrois & Aubin
Describe Alsace's climate. What is the major moderating influence?
-Vosges Mountains - provides a rain shadow
-One of France's driest & sunniest climates
What are the two designations for late-harvest wines? When were they created?
-Sélections de Grain Noble's
What are the major requirements for VT and SGN to be labeled either Alsace AOP or Grand Cru AOP?
-Contain a single, noble variety
-Pass a blind tasting panel
What is the capital of Haut-Rhin?
What is Alsace's most planted noble grape?
What is last noble grape to ripen?
When was Alsace Grand Cru system first proposed? When did the first appear? When were the rest promoted?
1975 - first decreed- Schlossberg
-1983 - 24 vineyards received the designation
-1985 - Another 25 vineyards promoted
-2007- 51st was promoted - Kaefferkopf
-2011- the actual number of Alsace Grand Crus increased from 1 to 51 as each received their own AOP
What is the Moselle AOP?
Red, white, rosé
-Principally from Auxerrois and Pinot Noir
Klevner vs Klevener
-Klevner - Pinot Blanc
-Klevener - Savagnin
What is the only AOP in Alsace to allow Chardonnay?
Cremant d'Alsace AOP
What is Savagnin Rose?
A pink berried clone of Traminer - aka Klevener
-Five communes may bottle this varietally under the Alsace AOP
-but vineyards may not be replanted
-designation expires in 2021
What are the noble grapes of Alsace?
What clones of Muscat are permitted as a noble variety?
-Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
-Muscat Rosé à Petits Grains
Where are there still a few plantings of Klevener?
Heiligenstein in the Bas Rhin
Are SGN wines required to be sweet?
No, but in practice are always dessert-like
What are the min must weights for SGN?
-Muscat & Riesling - 276g/l
-Pinot Gris & Gewurztraminer - 306g/l
(@306 amongst the highest min must weights in France)
What 2 Grand Cru vineyards allow for blending according to prescribed proportions?
-Altenberg de Bergheim
What is the historical site for Sylvaner?
-Allows for Sylvaner varietal Grand Cru wines
What are the two designations for Alsatian blends?
Gentil & Edelzwicker
What is the standard AOP for the Jura?
Côtes du Jura AOP
(Red, white, rosé)
What grapes are permitted for Côtes du Jura AOP red wines?
What is Savagnin known locally as in the Jura?
What is Chardonnay known as in the Jura?
What is the grape of Vin Jaune in Jura?
What are the permitted grapes for Vin de Paille in Jura?
-Pinot Noir is EXCLUDED
In poor vintages (like 1980 & 1984), what may the wines of Chateau Chalon be declassified as?
Côtes du Jura AOP
What is Altesse known as in Savoie?
What is the most common grape of Savoie?
Jacquère - not the best quality though
What is the regional appellation for Altesse in Savoie?
Roussette de Savoie
-Chard no longer allowed for blending
What communes may append their name to Roussette de Bugey AOP? Varietal?
-Virieu le Grand
What are the 3 communal appellations of Jura?
What is the Jura's leading wine village?
What is the home of Louis Pasteur?
What 4 communes may append their name to Roussette de Savoie AOP?
What is produced under the Seyssel AOP?
Vin Tranquille Blanc (Sec and Demi-Sec): 100% Altesse
Varietal-Labeled Molette (Tranquille): 100% Molette
Vin Mousseux Blanc: Min. 10% Altesse, plus Chasselas and Molette
What is vin de paille? What is the min must weight?
How long must it be aged?
-AKA straw wine
-Ripe, but not botrytized, grapes are left to dry for a min of 6 weeks
-Must achieve min must weight of 320g/l
-Aging - min 3 yrs (18 months in neutral wood)
What AOPs of Jura may produce vin de paille?
-Côtes du Jura
What Savoie AOP located north of Lake Bourget produce dry and off-dry still mousseux wines?
What is Chateau Chalon?
-Specializes in Vin Jaune
-Must be the classic vin jaune style
What is the grape of vin jaune? How long is it kept in barrel? What is the difference between this and fino sherry?
-Post-fermentation, it is kept in barrel until Dec 15th of the 6th year following harvest
-The wine is not topped up
-The voile, or veil, develops
-Unlike sherry, it is not fortified
What 3 crus are located along the shores of Lake Geneva in Savoie and require a min 80% Chasselas?
What is Roussanne known as in Savoie?
What production method is Crémant du Jura AOP? When was it established?
What is macvin du Jura? What colors can it be? How long must it be aged?
-Vin de liqueur
-Aged marc is added to unfermented grape must
-May be red, rosé or white
-Must be aged in oak for one year after mutage
What appellation in Savoie can produce Méthode Ancestrale Rosés?
When did Bugey AOP get upgraded? What color wines?
-Red, rosé, white
What is the required bottle for Chateau Chalon?
-A squat 62 cl bottle
Of the 12 communes, what is the only one that is allowed to append its name to Arbois AOP?
Describe the L'Etoile AOP. What grapes are permitted?
-White wine only appellation
-Chard, Poulsard (generally the blanc mutation), and Savagnin
-Generally bottled late in an oxidative style
What are the 3 most common red grapes for red and rosé vin de Savoie?
Which cru in Savoie is 100% exclusively Roussanne?
What grapes are the best Savoie whites produced from?
What is western Europe's largest body of water?
Lake Geneva (known as Lac Léman in France)
What grapes are permitted for Côtes du Jura AOP white wines?
-Typically 100% Chard (Gamay Blanc)
What grapes are permitted for Côtes du Jura AOP rosé wines?
-Can include all 5 grapes
-Usually made in a vin gris style
Capital of Alsace Lorraine
Better vineyards of Alsace get what type of exposure?
South, southeastern or eastern (to maximize sunlight)
Lower slopes of Alsace typically have ___ soils:
They sit on a limestone base
Plains at the base of the mountains in Alsace typically have ___ soils:
Richer alluvial clay and gravel
Last Alsatian grand cru to be added:
Kaefferkopt in 2006
Altenberg de Bergheim and Kaefferkopt are known for:
Being grand crus allowed to use blends
Zotzenberg is known for:
Using Sylvaner in their grand cru wines
What is the general minimum alcohol for Alsace grande cru muscat?
The term VT was authorized for use by Alsatian producers in:
Which grand crus of Alsace can produce blends?
Altenberg de Bergheim and Kaefferkupt
Sylvaner may be bottled as a single varietal in which grand cru of Alsace?
Of the 4 noble grapes of Alsace, which typically have less acidity?
Muscat and Gewürztraminer
Gewürztraminer is genetically linked to which grape of Jura?
Most northerly grand cru of Alsace
Most southerly grand cru in Alsace
What 5 communes can bottle Klevener de Heilgenstein?
Heilgenstein; Bourgheim; Gertwiller; Goxwiller; Obernai
When was Alsace Grand Cru AOP first proposed? What was the first promoted vineyard?
What is the harvest method required for Alsace Grand Cru?
What is the minimum abv required for Riesling and Muscat?
What is the minimum abv required for Pinot Gris and Gewurz?
When were the designations VT and SGN created?
What are the red only subzones of Alsace?
Ottrott, Rodern, Saint Hippolyte
What subzone can make red and whites in Alsace?
Cote de Rouffach
What is the minimum potential alcohol for non-varietally labeled whites?
What is the minimum potential alcohol for Pinot Blanc, Pinot, Riesling, and Auxerrios?
10% (10.5% if labeled with subzone or lieu-dit)
What is the minimum potential alcohol for Chasseslas, Muscat Ottonel, Muscat, and Sylvaner?
9.5% (10.5% if labeled with subzone or lieu-dit)
VT and SGN requirements:
-Cannot be chapitalized; -Must be vintage dated; -VT must be late harvested and may be affected by bot; -SGN wines must be affected by bot and harvested in tries; -VT and SGN cannot be released until June 1 of the year following harvest
All Alsatian wines must be bottled in...
Vin du Rhin/ Flute d'Alsace bottle
Where is Jura located?
Eastern France (south of Alsace, east of burgundy) on the Swiss border.
Soils of Jura
Jurassic limestone & marl with a substantial amount of clay at the lowest sites
Continental with harshly cold winters
Which appellation of Jura is white only?
L'Etoile. Using Chardonnay, poulsard and savagnin. Typically bottled late in an oxidative style
How long is chateau Chalon kept in barrel after fermentation?
Until December 15 of the 6th year following harvest
What is a 'voille'
A film-forming yeast that covers the wines surface, similar to the flor of sherry
The required bottle for a chateau Chalon wine. It's a squat bottle that holds 62 cl (about 20 ounces)
Elevage of vin de Paille from Jura.
Min 3 years including 18 months in neutral wood barrels
What is the vin de liqueur appellation of Jura?
Macvin du Jura
Pupullin is a subzone of which Jura region?
Climate of Savoie
Continental, moderated by lake Bourget and lake Geneva
Red grapes of vin de Savoie AOP
Gamay, mondeuse, Pinot noir
White grapes of vin de Savoie AOP
Jacquere (most common), but altesse, roussanne, and Chardonnay produce higher quality wines
Seyssel AOP (Savoie)
North of Lake Bourget. Dry, off-dry, and mousseux wines. Still wines = 100% altesse. Sparkling wines = min 10% altesse + molette & chasselas
Bugey AOP (Savoie)
Upgraded in may 2009. Red, rosé, and white wines. Sparkling wines labeled as Bugey-Cerdon
4 communes of Roussette de Savoie AOP
Frangy, Marestel, Monterminod, Monthoux
2 communes of Rousette de Bugey AOP
Montagnieu & Virieu Le Grand
Most producers of Grand Crus of Alsace must declare their intent to make a grand cru wine by when?
March 1st the year of harvest
What are the two permitted training methods for Alsace Grand Cru wines?
Single and Double Guyot
Name 2 Grand Crus of the Bas Rhin
Name 5 Grand Crus of the Haut Rhin
Altenberg de Bergheim
What are the two clos vineyards of Rangen?
Clos de Theobald- Schoffit
Clos St Urbain- Zind-Humbrecht
What is the clos vineyard of Rosacker?
Clos Ste Hune- Trimbach
What are the blending proportions for Altenberg de Bergheim?
10-25% Pinot Gris
Max 10% Chasselas + Muscat + Pinot Noir + Pinot Blanc
What are the blending proportions for Kaerfferkopf?
max 30% Pinot Gris
max 10% Muscat