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Flashcards in South America Deck (143):
1

Why did South America suffer in the 17th century?

A prohibitive Spanish law that restricted wine production in the new world in favor of Iberian producers

2

When did Argentina, Chile and Brazil gain independence?

In the early 1800s.

3

What are the three leading wine producing countries of South America?

Argentina, Chile and Brazil.

4

What is the only major winemaking country to remain totally phylloxera free?

Chile

5

What is the mission grape of South America identical to?

Listán Prieto in the Canary Islands

6

What is the Chilean synonym for the mission grape?

País

7

What is Argentina's most planted grape?

Cereza

8

What are the parent grapes of Torrontés Riojano?

Criolla Chica x Muscat of Alexandria

9

Much of Chile's Sauv Blanc is actually another grape. What is it?

Sauvignon Vert or Friulano

10

Much of Chile's merlot is actually a different grape. What is it?

Carmenère

11

What separates Chile from the rest of South America?

The Andes Mountains

12

Where are most of the major wine regions of chile located?

South of the capital, Santiago

13

What are the regional DOs of Chile (north to south)?

-Atacama
-Coquimbo
-Aconcagua
-the Valle Central (Central Valley)
-Sur (the Southern Regions)
-Austral

14

What is the climate of the northernmost regions of Chile?

Although it is moderated by maritime influence, the regions are dry and desert like

15

What is the climate of the Central Valley of Chile?

Proximity to the Andes cools nighttime temperatures and along the coast the cold Humboldt Current cools the vines.

16

What is the climate/weather of the southernmost regions of Chile?

Rainfall is higher and the overall growing season is cooler and shorter.

17

When was Chilean wine law established?

1995

18

What are the required minimums for vintage, varietal and denomination of origin for Chile?

75% across the board although many wineries observe an 85% minimum to comply with EU standards.

19

What is the minimum alcohol content for wines of Chile?

11.5%

20

What are the requirements for ABV for Reserva and Reserva Especial in Chile?

12%

21

What are the requirements for ABV for wines labeled Reserva Privada and Gran Reserva from Chile?

12.5%

22

What two labeling terms from Chilean stipulate time spent in oak?

Reserva Especial and Gran Reserva

23

What are the major grapes of Chile?

-Cabernet Sauvignon
-País
-Merlot
-Sauv Blanc,
-Chard
-Carmenère
-Syrah
-Sémillon
-Pinot Noir
-Cabernet Franc

24

What is the northernmost wine growing region in Chile?

Atacama

25

What happens to the majority of Atacama's wines?

They are distilled

26

What are the three regions within Coquimbo in Chile?

Elqui and Limarí to the north and Choapa in the south

27

Where is Atacama?

Chile

28

Where is Coquimbo?

Chile

29

Where is Elqui?

Coquimbo, Chile

30

Where is Limarí?

Coquimbo, Chile

31

Where is Choapa?

Coquimbo, Chile

32

What is the most planted grape in both Elqui and Limarí?

Cab Sauv

33

Where is Aconcagua DO?

Chile

34

What is Donald Hess' estate in Salta? How high are the vineyards?

-Colome
-3,000 m- some of the highest vineyards in the world

35

What is Bonards confusingly called in San Juan?

Barbera Bonarda

36

Although Colchagua is historically a bulk wine region, producers are finding success with premium wines sourced from higher-altitude sub-regions with greater diurnal variations, such as?

-Apalta
-San Fernando
-Chimbarongo

37

Who produces these iconic wines from Colchgua?
'Clos Apalta'
'Alpha M'
'Purple Angel'

-Casa Lapostolle 'Clos Apalta'- Bdx blend
-Vina Montes 'Alpha M'- Bdx blend
-Vina Montes 'Purple Angel'- Carmenere

38

What portion of Argentina's production occurs in Mendoza?

~ 3/4

39

What Argentine region makes decent sherry-like wines?

San Juan- the hot summer climate is also ideal for brandy and vermouth

40

What factor in Argentina helps keep Phylloxera and other diseases at bay?

Zonda- almost all vines in Mendoza are planted on their own rootstock

41

What is the average elevation of vineyards of Argentina?

900 m

42

Torrontes Riojano and Torrontes Sanjuanino are crossings of what grapes? Which is higher quality?

-Criolla Chica x Muscat of Alexandria
-Torrontes Riojano

43

The Rapel Valley (Central Valley) is divided into what two regions?

Cachapol and Colchagua

44

Where is Vina Errazuriz located? What is their flagship wine?

-Panquehue commune of Anconagua DO
-Sena- an iconic Bdx blend that placed ahead of Lafite and Margaux in the 2004 Berlin tasting

45

What 3 provinces are located in the North Region of Argentina?

-Salta
-Tucuman
-Catamarca

46

Where is Salta?

North Region, Argentina

47

Where is Tucuman?

North Region, Argentina

48

Where is Catamarca?

North Region, Argentina

49

What are the sub-regions of the Central Valley DO?

-Maipo Valley
-Rapel Valley
-Curico
-Maule Valley

50

Where is Maipo Valley?

Central Valley DO, Chile

51

Where is Rapel Valley?

Central Valley DO, Chile

52

Where is Curico?

Central Valley DO, Chile

53

Where is Maule Valley?

Central Valley DO, Chile

54

What pink-skinned varieties occupy 30% of Argentina's vineyards?

Cereza, Criolla Chica and Criolla Grande

55

What are Chile's major regional DOs from north to south?

-Atacama
-Coquimbo
-Aconcagua
-The Valle Central
-Sur (The Southern Region)
-Austral

56

Where is Atacama?

Chile

57

Where is Coquimbo?

Chile

58

Where is Aconcagua?

Chile

59

The Valle Central?

Chile

60

Where is Sur?

Chile

61

Which county is the 5th largest producer of wine in the world?

Argentina

62

What are the 3 valleys of the Sur DO?

-Itata
-Bio Bio
-Malleco

63

Where is Itata?

Sur DO, Chile

64

Where is Bio Bio?

Sur DO, Chile

65

Where is Malleco?

Sur DO, Chile

66

Who is Chile's largest producer?

Concha y Toro

67

Where are Mendoza's highest vineyards?

Uco Valley in the west

68

What two mountain ranges are in Chile?

The Coastal Ranges and the Andes

69

What is Argentina's 2nd largest wine-producing province?

San Juan

70

What is Argentina's most planted white grape?

Pedro Gimenez- unrelated to Spain's Pedro Ximenez

71

Where was the Mendoza Chardonnay clone developed? It has gained popularity despite what issue?

-UC Davis
-It is prone to millerandage and the resulting grapes have a higher skin-to-juice ratio

72

What is Argentina's most planted grape?

Cereza

73

When was Malbec introduced to Argentina?

1860

74

Bodegas Chacra is located where? What are they producing?

-Patagonia
-Super-premium Rio Negro Pinot Noir

75

Where is Sao Francisco Valley?

A tropical winegrowing region in northern Brazil, where growers can harvest twice per year

76

What in Aconcagua's most prominent subregion? What is it known for?

Casablance- Chard and SB

77

Argentina's Bonarda has been identified as what?

-It is genetically district from the northern Italian grape of the same name
-It is Savoie's Corbeau, AKA Charbono in the US

78

What varieties are grown in Brazil?

Bdx and other international grapes, along with Iberian varieties like Aragonez and Touriga Nacional

79

Describe Brazil's production? What major foreign investment has invested here?

-Predominantly red, but nearly a quarter is sparkling
-Moet & Chandon

80

What Brazilian state contains most of the country's viticulture?

Rio Grande do Sul (along the Argentine border), with Serra Gaucha being the country's most developed wine region and accounts for approximately 20% of Brazilian wine

81

What is the southernmost region in Chile? What is planted here?

-Malleco
-Pinot Noir and Chard

82

What are the subregions of the Aconcagua DO?

-Valle del Aconcagua DO
-Valle de Casablanca DO
-Valle de San Antonio Do

83

Where is Valle del Aconcagua DO?

It is a subregion of Aconcagua DO in Chile

84

Where is Valle de Casablanca DO?

It is a subregion of Aconcagua DO in Chile

85

Where is Valle de San Antonio DO?

It is a subregion of Aconcagua DO in Chile

86

What is the northernmost wine region in Argentina?

Salta

87

What is the promising department in Salta increasingly appearing on Torrontes labels? Name 2 producers located here.

-Cafayate
-Etchart- first brought Michael Rolland to Argentina
-Yacochuya- Arnaldo Etchart's new project

88

What is La Rioja's famous wine region? From what grapes?

-Famatina Valley
-Torrontes and Malbec

89

What DOs of Chile are historically destined for Pisco?

Atacama and Coquimbo

90

When was Chilean wine law established? What is the 75% rule?

-Established in 1995
-Varietal, vintage and DO must comprise 75% to be listed on the label
-Most wineries observe 85% to comply with EU standards for exports

91

Are hybrid grapes permitted in Chile?

No, only permitted varieties may be used

92

What is Chile's most famous winemaking area? What is it known for?

-Maipo Valley
-Cab Sauv- over 50% of the region's vineyards are devoted to the grape

93

What are the two departments of Mendoza that provide the best traditional sites for Malbec?

Lujan de Cuyo and Maipu

94

What grapes may be labeled as 'Torrontes'?

-Torrontes Riojano

Lower quality:
-Torrontes Sanjuanino
-Torrontes Mendocino

95

Chenin Blanc is the principal grape in what departments of Southern Mendoza?

San Rafael and General Alvear

96

White grapes, such as Chard and Semillon, are cultivated with success in high elevations of what departments of Mendoza?

Uco Valley and Tupungato Department

97

In 2011, the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture amended wine law to support 3 new geographical terms to append to the existing DOs. What are they? What percentage is required?

-Costa
-Entre Cordilleras ('Between Mountains')
-Andes
-To qualify, 85% of the grapes must be harvested in the appropriate region

98

What is the dominant red variety of Uruguay?

Tannat- rechristened Harriague, after Don Pascual Harriague, the Frenchman who introduced the grape to Uruguay

99

What does 'Reserva' and 'Gran Reserva' indicate on an Argentine label? When was it introduced? What is permitted?

Aging requirements:
-Reserva:
--White- 6 m
--Red- 1 year
-Gran Reserva
--White- 1 year
--Red- 2 years

-Introduced in 2008, no pink skinned varieties (Criolla Chica/Grande or Cereza) and max yields are regulated

100

What is the appellation system in Brazil? What is unique about it? What was the first?

-Origin Indications
-It restricts varieties and yields, in the manner of European appellations
-Vale do Vinhedos (a subregion within Serra Gaucha) in 2002

101

What grape played a similar role in Argentina as the Mission grape did in Chile?

Criolla Chica

102

What 2 grapes are related to Criolla Chica that are relevant in Argentina?

Cereza and Criolla Grande

103

What 3 major houses are located in Maipo Valley? Why?

-Concha y Toro
-Santa Rita
-Cousino Macul

-Its proximity to Santiago

104

What are the most planted varieties of Itata and Bio Bio?

Pais and Muscat d'Alexandria

105

What 3 provinces are located in the Cuyo region?

-La Rioja
-San Juan
-Mendoza

106

Where is Cuyo?

Argentina

107

Where is La Rioja?

Cuyo, Argentina

108

Where is San Juan?

Cuyo, Argentina

109

Where is Mendoza?

Cuyo, Argentina

110

What are Curico's two subregions?

Lontue and Teno

111

Where is Curico?

Valle Central, Chile

112

Where is Lontue?

Curico, Valle Central, Chile

113

Where is Teno?

Curico, Valle Central, Chile

114

Who makes the following wines and what are the varietals:
Don Melchor?
Vinedo Chadwick?
Almaviva?

Where are these produced?

Don Melchor- Concha y Toro, CS
Vinedo Charwick- Errazuriz, CS
Almaviva- joint project between Baron Philippe de Rothschild and Concha y Toro, Bdx blend

Puente Alto subregion of the Maipo Valley, Chile

115

What region in Chile is covered in Santiago's smog?

Maipo

116

What are Mendoza's two DOCs?

-Lujan de Cuyo- authorized for Malbec
-San Rafael- currently only used by Valentin Bianchi for base quality wines

117

What are the subzones of San Antonio DO (Aconcagua)? What is it known for?

-Leyda
-Lo Abarca
-Rosario
-Malvilla

-Predominately wines, with PN showing promise

118

Where is Leyda?

Valle de San Antonio, Aconcagua DO, Chile

119

Where is Lo Abarca?

Valle de San Antonio, Aconcagua DO, Chile

120

Where is Rosario?

Valle de San Antonio, Aconcagua DO, Chile

121

Where is Malvilla?

Valle de San Antonio, Aconcagua DO, Chile

122

What 3 provinces are located in the Patagonia province?

-La Pampa
-Rio Negro
-Neuquén

123

Where is La Pampa?

Patagonia, Argentina

124

Where is Rio Negro?

Patagonia, Argentina

125

Where is Neuquén?

Patagonia, Argentina

126

What are the 5 valleys of San Juan?

-Tulum
-Zonda
-Ullum
-Jachal
-Fertil

127

Where is Tulum?

San Juan, Cuyo, Argentina

128

Where is Zonda?

San Juan, Cuyo, Argentina

129

Where is Ullum?

San Juan, Cuyo, Argentina

130

Where is Jachal?

San Juan, Cuyo, Argentina

131

Where is Fertil?

San Juan, Cuyo, Argentina

132

Who is Claudio Gay

in 1830 the Frenchman who set up a Chilean repository of pre-Phylloxera Vitis Vinifera vines at the University of Chile's Quinta Normal department

133

Where di Miguel Torres set up Chilean operations in the 1970s?

Curico

134

What are the regions in Rio Grande do Sul?

-Serra Gaucha
-Sao Jaoquim
-Serra do Sudeste
-Campanha

135

Where is Serra Gaucha?

Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

136

Where is Sao Jaoquim?

Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

137

Where is Serra do Sudeste?

Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

138

Where is Campanha?

Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

139

What are the highly regarded estates of Mendoza?

-Catena
-Susana Balbo's Domino del Plata
-Bressia
-Achaval Ferrer

140

What air system cools the vines in Chile?

The Humoldt Current

141

What is the only country to remain totally Phylloxera free?

Chile

142

What project was founded in 1996 by Robert Mondavi? With who? Why is it no longer in the American market?

Robert Mondavi and Errazuriz have a collaborative project in Chile called Caliterra, founded in 1996, pulled from the American market when Mondavi was sold to Constellation

143

What are the sub regions of the Austral?

•Valle del Cautín DO
•Valle de Osorno DO