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Flashcards in Champagne and Sparkling Wine Deck (340):
1

What direction do the vineyards of Montagne de Reims face?

North and south

2

What is the prominent grape of the Aube?

Pinot Noir

3

What districts of Champagne do not have any Grand Crus?

Cote de Sezanne and Cote de Bars (Aube)

4

What villages were upgraded in 1985 from Premier to Grand Cru?

-Verzy (Montagne de Reims)
-Chouilly (Côte de Blancs)
-Oiry (Côte de Blancs
-Oger (Côte de Blancs)
-Le Mesnil-sur-Oger (Côte de Blancs)

5

What lasting contribution did Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin make under the widow's leadership?

The pupitre and thus remuage

6

What did André François discover?

The precise amount of sugar required to induce 2nd fermentation w/o breaking the bottle

7

Approximately how many growers are in Champagne?

20,000

8

Is malo a universal practice in Champagne?

No

9

What is the dominant soil of the Aube?

Clay

10

When did "mousseux" first appear in connotation w/the wines of Champagne?

1724
Although Champenoise may have enjoyed intentionally sparkling wines as early as 1700

11

Name 7 AOPs for traditional method Crémant in France.

-Crémant de Bordeaux
-Crémant de Bourgogne
-Crémant de Loire
-Crémant de Limoux
-Crémant de Die
-Crémant du Jura
-Crémant d'Alsace

12

What moderates the amount of land a firm may farm, owned or rented, in Champagne? What is the max hectares?

-Contrôle Structures
-15 hectares

13

What subsoil is pushed to the surface on Champagne's slopes?

Belemnite Chalk

14

Champagne now accounts for 1 in ___ bottles of sparkling wine produced worldwide?

12

15

Who released the first Tête de Cuvée?

Moët et Chandon's 1921 "Dom Pérignon" was released in 1936

16

What is vin clairs?

High-acid base wines with an approximate ABV of 11%

17

What is bouvreux?

-A second crop
-When rain interrupts flowering, a bouvreux results, that rarely ripens and is left on the vine

18

What does Pinot Meunier lend to a Champagne blend?

Youthful fruitiness and approachability

19

In 2012, what did Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and Pinot Meunier plantings account for in Champagne?

-Pinot Noir - 38%
-Chardonnay - 30%
-Pinot Meunier - 32%

20

What are the standard bottle sizes larger than a magnum for Champagne?

-Jeroboam (3L)
-Rehoboam (4.5L)
-Methusaleh (6L)
-Salmanazar (9L)
-Balthazar (12L)
-Nebuchadnezzar (15L)
-Solomon (18L)

21

Describe the continuous method steps.

-Base wine is pumped through a series of interconnected (continuous) tanks
-While undergoing 2nd ferment
-Lees accumulate in the first several tanks
-Offering a high degree of autolyzed flavors than the standard (tank) method

22

What percent of grapes must originate from a grower's own vineyards for RM?

95%

23

How much does the ABV rise during the second fermentation?

~1.2-1.3%

24

Name 6 countries major Champagne houses have established outposts in.

-USA
-Australia
-Argentina
-Brazil
-New Zealand
-Ukraine

25

What are the steps of Méthode Champenoise?

-Pressing
-Débourbage
-Chaptalization
-Prim. Fermentation
-Clarification
-Assemblage
-Cold Stabilization
-Racking
-Bottling (liqueur de tirage)
-Prise de Mousse (2nd Ferment)
-Autolysis
-Pointage
-Remuage
-Dégorgement
-Dosage
-Corked w/muselet

26

What is the oldest sparkling Champagne house?

Ruinart- est. in 1729

27

What size bottles is transvasage permitted for?

Smaller than the half bottle and larger than the Jeroboam

28

What is Méthode Rurale?

Another name for Méthode Ancestrale

29

What is liqueur de tirage?

A mixture of still wine, yeasts, sugar and a fining agent that will serve to ignite the 2nd fermentation

30

What is the prominent grape of Vallée de la Marne?

Pinot Meunier (Frost prone region)

31

What is the first 2,550 L pressed from 4,000kg divided into?

-vin de cuvée (2,050L)
-vin de taille (500L)

32

How long does remuage take?

-Traditional ~ 8 weeks
-Modern ~ 1 week

33

What does RC mean?

-Recoltant Coopérateur
-A grower whose grapes are vinifed at a cooperative, but sell under his own label

34

Name 2 other names for the Charmat Method.

-Cuve Close
-Tank Method

35

In 1992, what did the CIVC set the limit for grape pressing to?

102L for 160kg (2,550L for 4,000kg)

36

What is another name for the Continuous Method?

Russian Continuous Method
(Developed in the USSR)

37

What are the responsibilities for the CIVC?

-Mediating relationships between growers & producers
-Oversee production methods and promotion
-Regulates the size of the harvest
-Authorizes the blocage (reserve) and deblocage (release) of wine/harvest
-Safeguards the protected designation of Champagne
-Until 1990, they regulated the pricing of the grapes

38

What are the 4 vineyards concerns of Champagne?

-Frost
-Rain
-Fungal Disease
-Hail

39

What is a bidule?

A plastic capsule that will serve to capture the sediment during remuage

40

Is a cork used during the second fermentation bottling?

Usually a crown cap, a cork sometimes (i.e. for prestige cuvées)

41

What is Pinot Blanc Vrai?

"True" Pinot Blanc, a white form of Pinot Noir

42

What is a muselet?

A wire cage used to secure the cork on a Champagne bottle

43

How many liters is a Methusaleh?

6 L (8 bottles)

44

Who's 1801 seminal work identified the relationship between sugar and fermentation?

Who's 1801 seminal work identified the relationship between sugar and fermentation?

45

How is the majority of German Sekt produced?

Tank or Continuous Method

46

What is "les bleus de ville"?

Remnants of the blue rags used to ship Parisian compost trash, formerly used for fertilizer

47

What are the two types of dégorgment?

Dégorgement à la glace - modern
-Dégorgement à la volée - older method
-Same, just no freezing, wine is lost

48

What is the liqueur d'expedition?

Dosage - mixture of wine and sugar syrup

49

What is a Solomon bottle size called in Bordeaux?

Melchior

50

What is a Tête de Cuvée?

A prestige cuvée, usually the pinnacle of quality for a producer

51

What was the first single vineyard Champagne?

1935 Philiponnt "Clos de Goisses"

52

Describe Belemnite Chalk.

-Porous
-Derived from the fossilized remains of millions of cephalopods
-Absorbing heat to protect the vines at night
-Providing excellent drainage

53

What is the pressing limit for Crémant?

100L from 150kg = 2,666L from 4,000kg

54

What is the dominant grape of Côte de Sezanne?

Chardonnay

55

What did the winemaking treatise of 1718 highlight?

Division of quality between vin de cuvée and vin de taille, when pressing red grapes for white juice

56

What did the Champenoise use to color their wines to compete w/the deeper hues of red Burgundy?

Elderberry

57

What is a pupitre?

-Two large wooden planks fastened together in an upright "A" shape
-Each plank has 60 angled holes cut into it

58

What is Rosé de Riceys?

-100% Pinot Noir Rosé
-Produced in Les Riceys (Aube)

59

What is remuage?

Riddling

60

In 1985, what change was made to the Échelle de Crus?

A revision set the minimum percentage at 80

61

When did the growers of Champagne revolt?

1911 - rioting in the streets and ransacking houses

62

What is done in Méthode Ancestrale prior to sale?

The wine is disgorged, filtered and rebottled in clean glass

63

What is an autoclave?

A pressurized enamel-lined tank for the 2nd fermentation for the Charmat Method

64

What is "sur latte" and "sur point"?

-"sur latte" - during the 2nd ferment, the bottles are typically horizontal (sur latte)
-"sur point" - the bottles are vertical (sur point) at the end of remuage and rested

65

How many liters is a Balthazar?

12 L (16 bottles)

66

How many liters is a Nebuchadnezzar?

15 L (20 bottles)

67

What are the Grand Crus of Vallée de la Marne?

-Aÿ
-Tours-sur-Marne (Red grapes only)

68

What is a "marc" of grapes?

4,000kg - the amount held in a traditional basket press (coquard)

69

What are the 5 districts of Champagne?

-Montage de Reims
-Vallée de la Marne
-Cote de Blancs (the Aube)
-Cote de Sézanne
-Cote de Blancs

70

What is assemblage?

Blending

71

What bottle size was discontinued in 1989? Why?

-Rehoboam - 4.5L (6 bottles)
-Regulations state bottles must be in liter increments

72

What pruning methods are permitted in Champagne?

-Cordon de Royat
-Chablis
-Vallée de la Marne
-Double or Simple Guyot

73

What percentage of the blend must come from the stated vintage?

100%

74

What major change in the late 17th century allowed the English to probably have enjoyed the first true sparkling Champagne?

The English transferred Champagne from cask to stronger, coal fired glass that could contain the pressure. Previously, wood-fired glass was used

75

What region outside of France is considered a natural continuation of the chalk in Champagne?

White Cliffs of Dover (England)

76

Why was the CIVC founded?

-Built on the framework of the Commissions de Châlons
-A broader consortium of growers, producers and shippers
-To represent the Champagne industry and protect its interests in the face of Nazi occupation

77

What is transvasage?

Transfer Method
-Remuage is unnecessary, the wine is disgorged into a pressurized tank and filtered
-Dosage is added and the wine is transferred to a clean bottle under pressure

78

What was Dom Pérignon's lasting contribution to Champagne? Where was he the cellar master?

-Blending
-Abbey of Hautvillers (1668-1715)

79

How many bottles did the Champenoise ship worldwide?

338.7 million

80

What is Coteaux Champenois?

Still red, white & rosé for the entire appellation of Champagne

81

What is the topsoil of most of Champagne?

Sandy and clay

82

When did the INAO decide to meet the burden of demand and broaden the appellation's area? From what to what?

-2009
-319 to 357

83

What portion of the Champagne sold is produced by growers?

Under a quarter

84

Name 6 appellations in France that may be mousseux or pétillant and are produced by the traditional method.

-Vouvray
-Montlouis-sur-Loire
-Saumur
-Vin de Savoie
-Seyssel (Savoie)
-Blanquette de Limoux

85

What are the requirements for Special Club members?

-Viticulture must occur on the estate (only RM producers may join)
-Vinification and bottling must occur on the estate
-The "Special Club" is the top-of-the-range, prestige cuvée for all members
-Must have identical labels and bottle shape

86

What is débourbage?

Settling of the must

87

What direction do the vineyards of the Côte de Blancs face?

Southeast and east

88

What portion of the Champagne market is NV?

3/4th

89

Is all Cava traditional method?

Yes

90

What does the Charmat Method emphasize in a sparkling wine?

Fruit and varietal aromatics

91

What does CM mean?

-Coopérative Manipulant
-A growers' co-operative that produces wine under a single brand

92

How many g/L of RS are permitted for Demi-Sec?

-Pre-2010 - 33-50g/l
-Current - 32-50g/l

93

How many g/L RS are permitted for Doux?

-Pre-2010 - 50+g/L
-Current - 50+g/L

94

How many g/L of RS is permitted for Extra Brut?

-Pre-2010 - 0-6g/l
-Current - 0-6g/l

95

What is the second layer soil that characterizes Champagne's valley vineyards?

Micraster Chalk - name for the extinct sea urchin

96

Which Grand Cru is red only? White only?

-Red - Tours-sur-Marne (Vallée de la Marne)
-White - Chouilly (Côte de Blancs)

97

What percentage of the year's harvest for a single house may be sold as vintage Champagne?

max 80%

98

When was Champagne delimited? What region was left out? When was it added?

-1908
-Aube
-1927

99

What parallel is Champagne located on?

48th

100

What is the mean annual temperature of Champagne?

50ºF (10ºC)

101

What does MA mean?

-Marque d'Acheteur
-A "buyer's own brand", often a large supermarket chain or restaurant, that purchases Champagne and sells it under its own label

102

What vintage during WWI (1914-1918) was considered one of the finest vintages of the century?

1914

103

What was the Commissions de Châlons?

-Predecessor to the CIVC
-Est. in 1935
-A consortium of growers and merchants
-Formed to develop quality standards and regulate pricing

104

When was compost fertilizer outlawed in Champagne?

1998

105

What is a matriculation number?

A series of digits that is a unique ID assigned to each producer by the CIVC

106

How many half twists are used to secure the muselet?

6

107

What is the Prise de Mousse?

Second Fermentation

108

How many liters is a Solomon?

18L (24 bottles)

109

The early unpredictability of sparkling wines created a need for terminology, what were those terms?

-Pétillant
-Demi-Mousseux (Crémant)
-Grand Mousseux



A

110

What is the "Club Trésors"? When was it organized?

-Special Club
-1971

111

What is the Special Club?

-A dozen grower-producers
-Lacking marketing budgets of larger houses, they banded together to promote their prestige cuvées through identical packaging

112

How long must NV wines spend on their lees?

12 months

113

How many atmospheres of pressure are in a Champagne bottle?

5-6

114

What are bourbes?

Solids, generally removed by racking prior to fermentation

115

What does ND mean?

-Négociant Distributeur
-A middle man company that distributes Champagne it did not make

116

How long must NV wines remain in the cellar? Vintage?

-15 months
-36 months

117

How many g/l of RS are permitted for Extra Dry?

-Pre-2010 - 12-20g/l
-Current - 12-17g/l

118

What is a remuer?

A riddler

119

What are the sweetness levels for Champagne?

-Extra Brut
-Brut
-Extra Dry
-Sec
-Demi-Sec
-Doux

120

What percentage of vineyards do merchant houses own in Champagne?

Just over 10%

121

What is the oldest Champagne house still in operation today?

-Gosset
-Est. in 1584 as a still wine producer

122

Who developed the Charmat Method in the late 20th century?

Eugene Charmat

123

What is a Piccolo?

A quarter bottle - 187ml

124

What does NM mean?

-Négociant Manipulant
-A house that purchases base wines and grapes from growers and smaller houses

125

What are the obscure authorized varieties of Champagne?

-Pinot Blanc Vrai
-Arbane
-Pinot Gris
-Petit Meslier

126

Must a prestige cuvée be vintage?

Usually (but not always)

127

In 2006, what were the yields in Champagne?

They surpassed 82hl/ha

128

What is the average vine age in Champagne?

20 years - as lowered productivity is undesirable to most houses in Champagne

129

Name 5 important Special Club members.

-Marc Hébrat
-Paul Bara
-J. Lassalle
-Gaston Chiquet
-Pierre Gimonnet

130

What are the still wine appellations of Champagne?

-Coteaux Champenois
-Rosé de Ricey

131

What coloring methods are permitted for pink Champagne?

-Saignée
-Blending (more common)

132

How many liters is a Salmanazar?

9L (12 bottles)

133

What does SR mean?

-Société de Récoltants
-A firm, not a co-operative, set up by a union of often related growers who share resources to make their wines and collectively market several brands

134

What does Pinot Noir lend to a Champagne blend?

Supports the wine's structure, richness and body

135

How many bottles does a gyropalette hold?

504

136

From 2010 forward, producers are allowed what margin for g/l RS for styles?

+/- 3 g/l of RS

137

What is the wire cage used to secure the cork called?

Muselet

138

How many g/l of RS are permitted for Sec?

-Pre-2010 - 17-35g/l
-Current - 17-32g/l

139

At what pressure is the Charmat 2nd fermentation stopped? How?

-Usually 5 atmospheres
-Chilling the wine to arrest the fermentation

140

Where did Otto Klaebisch, the weinführer, take residence during WWII?

Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin Estate

141

What does CIVC stand for? When was it founded?

-Comité Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne
-1941, by Count Robert-Jean Vogüé of Moët et Chandon

142

What are the 3 extractions in the pressing process called?

-Vin de cuvée
-Vin de taille
-Rebêche

143

What are the Grand Crus of Montagne de Reims (north to south)?

-Sillery
-Puisieulx
-Beaumont-sur-Vesle
-Verzenay
-Mailly
-Verzy (added in 1985)
-Louvois
-Bouzy
-Ambonnay

144

How many g/l of RS is permitted for Brut?

-Pre-2010 - 0-15g/l
-Current - 0-12g/l

145

How many liters is the extraordinarily rare Primat? What is it also known as?

-AKA Goliath
-27L (36 bottles)

146

How long is Asti DOCG required to remain in tank?

1 month

147

What two premier crus have a 99% ranking échelle?

-Mareuil-sur-Aÿ (Vallée de la Marne)
-Tauxières (Montagne de Reims)

148

Is a dosage allowed for méthode ancestrale wines?

No, RS of the finished wines vary by appellation

149

What is rebêche?

-The third extraction
-Required by law and must comprise 1-10% of the total pressing
-Used for distillate

150

What is the Échelle de Crus?

-A percentile system by which the villages, or crus, of Champagne are rated
-Grand Cru = 100%
-Premier Cru = 99-90%

151

What does RM mean?

-Récoltant Manipulant
-A grower-producer who makes Champagne from estate-grown fruit

152

Who released the first brut Champagne? When?

-Pommery "Nature"
-1874

153

When is the additional acreage added to Champagne forecasted to affect sales?

2021

154

What grape is prominent in the Montagne de Reims?

Pinot Noir

155

How many liters is a Jeroboam?

3L (4 bottles)

156

Name 3 examples of Méthode Ancestrale.

-Bugey de Cerdon
-Clairette de Die Méthode Dioise Ancestrale
-Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Gaillaçoise

157

Who were the major suppliers to domestic markets in France in the 2nd half the 20th century?

Co-ops

158

When did Champagne receive AOC status? What is unique about Champagne's AOC status?

-1936
-It is the only AOC/AOP that does not need to be included on the label

159

What are the Grand Crus of the Côte de Blancs (North to South)?

-Chouilly (White grapes, added in 1985)
-Oiry (1985)
-Cramant
-Avize
-Oger (1985)
-Le Mesnil-sur-Oger (1985)

160

What does Pinot Meunier mean?

"Miller's" Pinot - in reference to the dusty leaves

161

What is "pointage"?

A brisk shake to prevent the sediment from sticking to the sides of the bottle during remuage
-Newer strains generally preclude the need

162

What important houses were founded in the 18th century?

-Ruinart
-Taittinger
-Moët et Chandon
-Delamotte
-Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin

163

What is the name of the Veuve Clicquot?

Madame Barbe-Nicole Ponsardin

164

Name 2 wineries leading the way in England sparkling wine.

Located in Sussex
-Ridgeview Estate
-Nyetimber

165

How long does the 2nd fermentation last?

Up to 8 weeks

166

Name 4 Champagne producers that disgorge late.

-Bollinger "RD" (Récemment Dégorge)
-Jacquesson "DT" (Dégorgement Tardif)
-Dom Pérignon "Oenotheque"
-Bruno Paillard

167

What is a half bottle called?

Demi

168

How many liters is the extraordinarily rare Sovereign?

25 L (33.33 bottles)

169

Tete de cuvée of Canad Duchene

Charles VII brut

170

Tete de cuvée of Charles Heidsieck

Charlie, Blanc des Millenaires

171

Tete de cuvée of De Castellane

Cuvee Commador (No longer produced)

172

Tete de cuvée of Delamotte

Nicolas Louis Delamotte

173

Tete de cuvée of Deutz (3)

Cuvée William Deutz Rose, Cuvée William Deutz, Amour de Deutz

174

Tete de cuvée of Devaux

Cuvée distinction

175

Tete de cuvée of Drappier
Monoparcel wine of Drappier

Charles de Gaulle; Grande Sendree

176

Tete de cuvée of Duval-Leroy

Femme de Champagne

177

Monoparcel wine of Egly Ouriet

Les Crayeres

178

Tete de cuvée of G. H. Mumm

Rene lalou

179

Tete de cuvée of Gosset (2)

Celebris

180

Tete de cuvée of Heidsick Monopole

Diamant Bleu

181

Tete de cuvée of Henri Abele (2)

Soirees Parisiennes, La souriere de Reims

182

Tete de cuvée of Herriot

Cuvée des enchanteleurs

183

Tete de cuvée of Jacquart (2)

Cuvee Alpha, Brut de Nominee (discontinued)

184

Tete de cuvée of Jacques Selosse

Substance NV

185

Tete de cuvée of Joseph Perrier

Cuvée Josephine

186

Monoparcel wines of Krug (2)

Clos du Mesnil, Clos d'ambonnay

187

Tete de cuvée of Lanson

Noble cuvée

188

Monoparcel wines of Larmandier Bernier (2)

VV de Cramant, Terre de Vertus

189

Tete de cuvée of Laurent Perrier (2)

Grand siecle, grand siecle Alexandra rose

190

Tete de cuvée of Louis Roederer

Cristal

191

Tete de cuvée of Mercier

Cuvée Eugene

192

Tete de cuvée of Moët & Chandon (2)

Dom perignon, Dom perignon rose

193

Tete de cuvée of Nicolas Feuillate

Palm d'or rose

194

Tete de cuvée of pannier

Egerie

195

Tete de cuvée of Perrier jouet (3)

Belle Époque brut, Belle Époque rose, Fleur de Champange

196

Monoparcel wine of Philliponnat

Clos des goisses

197

Tete de cuvée of Pierre Gimonnet

Gastronome

198

Tete de cuvée of Piper Heidsieck

Rare

199

Tete de cuvée of pol roger

Cuvée sir Winston Churchill

200

Tete de cuvée of Pommery (2)

Cuvée Louise, cuvée Louise rose

201

Tete de cuvée of Rene Geoffrey

Premier cru a Cumieres

202

Tete de cuvée of Ruinart Pere et Fils

Dom Ruinart BdB

203

Tete de cuvée of Salon

Le mesnil

204

Tete de cuvée of taittinger (2)

Comtes de champagne BdB, comtes de champagne rose

205

Tete de cuvée of union champagne

(Aka de saint gall) cuvée orpale BdB

206

Tete de cuvée of Veuve Clicquot (2)

La Grande Dame, la grande dame rose

207

Extra brut

Pre-2010: 0-6 g/L Now: 0-6 g/L

208

Brut

Pre-2010: 0-15 g/L. Now: 0-12 g/L

209

Extra dry

Pre-2010: 12-20 g/L. Now: 12-17 g/L

210

Sec

Pre-2010: 17-35 g/L. Now: 17-32 g/L

211

Demi sec

Pre-2010: 33-50 g/L. Now: 32-50 g/L

212

Doux

Pre-2010: 50+ g/L. Now: 50+ g/L

213

Piccolo

187 ml

214

Demi

375 ml

215

Bottle

750 ml

216

Magnum

1.5 L (2 bottles)

217

Jeroboam

3 L (4 bottles)

218

Methuselah

6L (8 bottles)

219

Salmanazar

9L (12 bottles)

220

Balthazar

12L (16 bottles)

221

Nebuchadnezzar

15L (20 bottles)

222

Solomon

18L (24 bottles)

223

Non vintage NV

Generally brut in style, represents a house's signature style, makes up 3/4 of the market

224

Vintage

100% from stated vintage but max 80% of a years harvest may be sold as vintage.

225

Blanc de Blancs

100% Chardonnay. Very age worthy

226

Blanc de noirs

White wine from black grapes. Usually display richness, intensity, and weight although can lack finesse

227

Prestige cuvée

Aka tete de cuvée. Finest and most expensive bottling that a house offers. Typically vintage dated and aged for a number of years before release. Many undergo more traditional vinification techniques

228

Single vineyard

Not required to carry a vintage, although many do. The style represents a stark departure from the blending philosophy of the region.

229

Special club

Originated in 1971 with a dozen grower-producers. They are now 24 RM which offer estate bottled, vintage dated wines that represent the pinnacle of each individual growers style. All special club bottles and labels share an identical designs.

230

Rose

The traditional saignee method is less common than blending. Champagne is the only AOP in France that allows a rosé wine to be made by blending red and white wine.

231

Saignee method

Wine gains its hue through extended skin contact.

232

Remuage

Aka riddling, developed by Madame Barbe-Nicole Ponsardin, of veuve clicquot. Allows sediment to easily be removed from a bottle during disgorgement.

233

CIVC

Comite Interprofessional de Vin de Champagne. Established in 1941 by Count Robert-Jean de Vogue of Moët & Chandon. Helps with the complex mediation between large houses and smaller growers.

234

Climate

Atlantic influenced. Cold continental. Coldest/ wettest wine region in the world.

235

Soil(s)

Porous belemnite chalk is at the surface of the slopes. Micraster chalk characterizes the valley vineyards. A thin layer of clay and sand cover much of the chalk. But in the Aube clay is the dominate soil type.

236

Belemnite chalk

Derived from fossilized remains of millions of extinct Cephalopods and has a high limestone content

237

Micraster chalk

Named for a extinct sea urchin

238

Grapes permitted

Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Pinot meunière, Pinot blanc, Pinot Gris, arbane, petit meslier

239

Elevage

Nv wines must age a min of 15 months from date of tirage. Vintage wines require a minimum of 36 months

240

Maximum yields

10,400 kg/ha

241

Aoc established in...

1936

242

Where is the village of Ambonnay?

Montagne de Reims

243

Vin de cuvee

The first 2,050 liters to be extracted from 4,000 kg of grapes.

244

What region in France does not produce an AOP cramant?

Provence

245

When was the CIVC formally established?

1941

246

Mauzac is the dominant grape of which sparkling wine AOP?

Blanquette de limoux

247

Dosage

An addition of sugar and wine that determines the wines final sweetness level

248

What is the most southerly region?

The Aube

249

What does RM indicate

The wine was produced by a grower-producer q

250

Method ancestrale

Single fermentation begins in the tank but concludes in the bottle q

251

Geographic elements

Most northerly wine region in France. Hilly. Ardennes hills to the east. Marne and vesle rivers to the north. Aube and seine rivers to the south.

252

Vini/viti

High density (6-10k vines/ ha). High yields (12,500). Base ABV 9.5%. Final 12.5%

253

Aging

NV- min 15-36 months on lees. Vintage- 36-60 months on lees. Prestige cuvée- 7-10 years on lees

254

Grand crus of Cote des Blancs (N to S)

(East facing) chouilly, oiry, cramant, Avize, oger, le mesnil sur oger

255

Grand crus of Montagne de Reims (9) (N to S)

Sillery, Puisieulx, Beaumont sir Vesle, Verzenay, Mailly- champagne, Verzy, Louvois, Bouzy, Ambonnay.

256

Types of presses allowed

Pneumatic, pressoir de champagne

257

3 houses known for barrel fermentation

Krug, Bollinger, Alfred Gratien

258

Pinot noir adds:

Body, structure, texture, aroma, length

259

Chardonnay adds:

Acid, elegance, toasty nutty/ vanilla flavors with age

260

Pinot meunier adds:

Fruitiness, body, mushroom tones. It is not allowed in grand crus.

261

Vallee de la Marne grand crus

Ay-champagne, tours sur Marne

262

What does 'echelle des crus' mean?

Price and % of price the growers get for their grapes. Grand cru=100%. Premier cru=90-99%. Deuxieme cru=80-89%

263

What is aspersion?

A viti technique. A system automatically sprays water on the vines when vineyard temperatures drop below freezing. The frost expands its energy in freezing the water, leaving the delicate shoots and buds safely cocooned in ice.

264

What is a reserve wine?

Wine kept in reserve from previous years. Used as dosage to make younger wines richer, fuller, and more complex

265

11 1er crus of Montagne de riems (94%+)

Billy-le-grand (95%), chigny-les-roses (94%), ludes (94%). Montbre (94%), Rilly-la-Montagne (94%), taissy (94%), tauxieres-mutry (99%), trepail (95%), trois-puits (94%), vaudemange (95%), villers-marmery (95%)

266

3 1er crus of Vallee de la Marne (94%+)

Bisseuil (95%), dizy (95%), mareuil-sur-ay (99%),

267

6 1er crus of Cote de Blancs (94%+)

Bergeres-les-vertus (95%), chouilly (r95%, w100%), cuis (w95%), grauves (w95%), vertus (95%), villeneunve- renneville- chevigny (95%)

268

Two 1er crus rated 99%

Tauxieres-Mutry (Montagne de Reims). Mareuil-sur-Ay (Vallee de la Marne)

269

Mousseux

Fully sparkling wines from a non AOP region, such as vouvray, montlouis-sur-Loire, saumur, vin de savoie, seyssel.

270

Petillant

Lightly sparkling wines from a non AOP region, such as vouvray, montlouis-sur-Loire, saumur, vin de savoie, seyssel.

271

Deblocage

The release of older vintages of base wines for use in assemblage

272

Pointage

In the past during lees aging, bottles would be shaken to keep sediment from sticking to the glass

273

Sur latte

Bottles are kept in a horizontal position prior to remuage

274

Blocage

The reserve of base wines for the use in future vintages.

275

Debourbage

After the pressing the juice the juice is allowed to settle at a cool temperature and the must drops out prior to remuage

276

Name 5 NM producers

Billecart Salmon
Bollinger
Alfred Gratien
Bruno Paillard
Pol Roger

277

Name 5 RM producers

Henri Billiot
Guy Larmandier
Jacques Selosse
Vilmart
Agrapart

278

Name 2 CM producers

Nicolas Feuillatte
Jacquart

279

Name 5 special club members

Paul Bara
Gaston Chiquet
Pierre Gimonnet
Henri Goutorbe
Marc Hebrart
Juillet-Lallement
Larmandier
J. Lassalle
A. Margaine
Mousse Fils

280

Who makes Grand Cuvee?

Billecart-Salmon ('82) (NM)

281

Who makes Elisabeth Salmon Rose?

Billecart Salmon ('88) (NM)

282

Who makes La Grande Annee?

Bollinger (NM)

283

Who makes 'RD'?

Bollinger (NM)

284

Who makes VV Francaises?

Bollinger (100% PN) ('69) (NM)

285

Who makes Celebris?

Gosset (NM)

286

Who makes Cuvee Paradis?

Alfred Gratien (NM) (NV)

287

Who makes Grand Siecle?

Laurent-Perriere (NM) (Usually NV)

288

Who makes Nec-Plus-Ultra?

Bruno Paillard ('90) (NM)

289

Who makes La Grande Dame?

Veuve Cliquot (Brut & Rose)('69; '88) (NM)

290

Who makes Cuvee Laetitia?

Henri Billiot (RM)

291

Who makes Cuvee Julie?

Henri Billot ('99) (RM)

292

Who makes Cramant Grand Cru Cuvee Prestige?

Guy Larmandier (100% Chard) (RM)

293

Who makes Substance?

Jacques Selosse (NV) (RM)

294

Who makes Coeur de Cuvee?

Vilmart ('89) (RM)

295

Who makes Palmes d'or?

Nicolas Feuillatte (Brut & Rose) ('89; '96) (CM)

296

Who makes Brut de Nominee?

Jacquart (NV) (Vintages declared '85-'90)(CM)

297

Who makes Venus Brut Nature?

Agrapart (100% Chard) (RM)

298

Who makes Clos st. Hilaire?

Billecart- Salmon (100% PN) ('95) (NM)

299

Who makes Cuvee Speciale les Chentillons?

Pierre Peters (100% Chard) ('83) (RM)

300

Name 3 other sparkling wines using traditional method.

Franciacorta
Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico
Cava

301

Where does Roederer have a sparkling wine house in the USA?

Anderson Valley

302

Where does Taittinger have a sparkling wine house in the USA?

Carneros

303

Where does Moet et Chandon have a sparkling wine house in the USA?

Yountville

304

Name a producer of Cap Classique.

Graham Beck

305

Where is the Charmant or tank method commonly used?

Asti
Prosecco
German Sekt

306

What are the still wines from Franciacorta DOCG zone released as?

Either Curtefranca DOC or Sebino IGT

307

What is Ca' del Bosco's prestige cuvee?

Annamaria Clementi

308

Franciacorta is made with wtih method?

Metodo classico

309

When did Franciacorta receive DOCG status?

1995

310

What are the grapes of Franciacorta?

Chardonnay, Pinot Nero and a minimum of 50% Pinot Bianco

311

What are the aging requirements for Franciacorta NV?

18 months on lees and cannot be released until 25 months from harvest

312

What is Saten?

A Franciacorta from only white grapes bottled at less than 5 atmospheres of pressure and brut in style

313

What are the requirements for Franciacorta Rose?

Minimum 25% Pinot Nero and must be made by blending

314

What are the requirements for Franciacorta released as Vintage?

(Millesimato) 37 month minimum aging before release and 85% of the grapes must come from the stated year

315

What are the requirements for Franciacorta Reserva?

Must be vintage dated with 5 years on lees and not released until 67 months from harvest

316

What are the grape requirements for Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico DOCG?

Must be a minimum 70% Pinot Nero and may be labeled varietally if at least 85% Pinot Nero.

317

What are the aging requirements for Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico DOCG?

NV= 15 months on less
Vintage= 2 years on lees

318

What are still wines from Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico DOCG released as?

Oltrepo Pavese DOC

319

What are the two DOCG zones for Prosecco as of 2009?

Conefliano Valdobbiadene Prosecco DOCG and Asolo Prosecco DOCG

320

What are still wines from Prosecco DOCG released as?

Prosecco DOCG

321

What are the two styles of Prosecco?

Frizzante and Spumante

322

What is spumante superior in Prosecco?

Fully sparkling iwnes that may be brut-> demi sec in style

323

What is the best cru of Prosecco? What is it released as?

Cartizze
Released as Valdobbiadene Superiore di Cartizze

324

What are the requirements for Prosecco DOCG?

85% minimum of stated year if released as vintage. 85% Prosecco (glera)

325

German Sekt

Typically at Deutschner Wein level but can be QbA if from traditional grapes grown in on of the 13 anbaugebiete of Germany

326

Cap Classique

Traditional method sparkling wine from South Africa increasingly using Pinot Noir and Chardonnay

327

When was the term "methode champenoise" banned from all wines sold in the EU that were not from Champagne?

1985

328

What are the 5 major districts of Champagne?

Montagne de Reims
Cote des Blancs
Valle de la Marne
The Aube (Cote de Bars)
Cote de Sezanne

329

What is the primary grape variety of Montagne de Reims?

Pinot Noir

330

What are the best villages of Montagne de Reims?

Ambonnay
Ay-Champagne
Bouzy
Verzenay
Verzy

331

What is the primary grape variety of Cote des Blancs?

Chardonnay

332

What are the best villages of the Cote des Blancs?

Cramant
Avize
le Mesnil sur Oger

333

What is the primary grape variety of the Valle de la Marne?

Pinot Meunier

334

What are the best villages of the Valle de la Marne?

Mareuil sur Ay (PN)
Dizy (PN/PM)
Hautvillers (PN/PM)
Cumieres (PM)
Leuvrigny (PM)
Ste-Gemme (PM)

335

What is the primary grape of the Aube?

Pinot Noir

336

What is the best village of the Aube?

les Riceys

337

What is the primary grape variety of the Cote de Sezanne?

Chardonnay

338

What are the best villages of the Cote de Sezanne?

Bethon
Villenauxe-la-Grande

339

Where is Champagne?

It is the most northerly wine producing region in France, about 90 miles northeast of Paris.

340

What is the climate of Champagne?

Cold and wet northern climate that is greatly influenced by the Atlantic, which has a cooling effect on the summer and makes seasons more variable. Frost is a major problem during spring and fall.