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Flashcards in Altered Mood Deck (34):
1

What is the leading cause of disability worldwide?

Depression
(WHO 2015)

2

Most common depression diagnosis?

Mixed anxiety and depression

3

Are men or women more likely to get depression?

M:F 1:2

4

Life expectancy reduction in someone with depression?

5-10 years

5

How long must you have had symptoms for to be diagnosed with depression?

2 weeks

6

Core symptoms of depression

1) Low mood
2) Anhedonia
3) Anergia

(need at least 2 core plus additional symptoms)

7

Depression Additional Symtpoms

Loss of self confidence/self esteem
Self-reproach/excessive guilt
Recurrent thoughts: death, suicide, suicidal behaviour
Change psychomotor activity
Sleep disturbance
Change in appetite

8

Mild/moderate/severe depression scoring

Severity:
Mild: 2 core plus others to total minimum 4

Moderate: 2 core plus others to total minimum 6

Severe: 3 core plus others to total minimum 8
(severe +/- psychotic symptoms)

9

Somatic Syndrome

Loss of interest/pleasure
Lack of emotional reactions
Weight loss
Loss of appetite
Loss of libido
Psychomotor agitation/retardation
Diurnal variation
Early morning waking

-Need at least 4
-Weight loss at least 5% of body weight in past month
-psychomotor agitation/retardation marked on or reported by other people

10

Hallucinations in depression

-Usually mood congruent
-Auditory most common (second person and derogatory)
-Illusions

11

What is recurrent depression

Repeated episodes of mild, moderate or severe depression
-No episodes fulfilling criteria for mania or hypomania

12

Dysthymia

Chronic low mood
(vs depression)
Doesn’t fulfil criteria for RDD
May have fulfilled criteria for mild depressive episode (but not recurrent mild episode)
Tired and depressed for months at a time
Usually able to cope with demands of everyday life

13

Schizoaffective disorder

-psychotic symptoms, similar to schizophrenia

-mood symptoms of bipolar disorder

-have both psychotic and mood symptoms at the same time or within two weeks of each other

14

Endocrine cause of low mood

Hypoglycemia

15

Haematological cause of low mood

Anaemia

16

Inflammatory cause of low mood

SLE

17

Infective cause of low mood

Syphilis

18

Medication which could cause low mood

Beta-blockers

19

Inflammatory cause of low mood

SLE

20

Adjustment disorder

A group of symptoms, such as stress, feeling sad or hopeless and physical symptoms that occur after going through a stressful event

-symptoms occur because you're having a hard time coping
-reaction is stronger than expected for the type of event that occured

21

Bipolar I

One or more manic or mixed (manic and depressive) episodes

(lecture says two or more episodes of mania +/- depression)

22

Bipolar II

Depressive episode with at least one episode of hypomania

23

What is rapid cycling bipolar?

4 or more mood episodes in one year

-may be interspersed with periods of wellness
-cycling may take place in a matter of days, weeks or months

24

Mean age of bipolar onset?

21 years

25

Which is more common, bipolar I or II?

Bipolar II (1.5-5% vs 1%)

26

Chance of developing bipolar if you have first degree relative with it?

~7 fold risk

27

Chance of child having bipolar if you have it?

50% risk of psychiatric disorder

28

Endocrine differential of bipolar?

Hyperthyroidism

29

Inflammatory differential of bipolar?

SLE

30

Infection differential of bipolar?

Neurosyphilis

31

Medication which could cause symptoms similar to bipolar?

Steroids

32

Cyclothymia

Persistant instability of mood

Numerous periods of mild depression and mild elation

Need prolonged observation or good account of past behaviour

33

Are men or women more likely to get bipolar?

Equally likely, ratio is 1:1

34

Lifetime suicide risk if you have bipolar?

10-15%