% of inorganic composition of alveolar bone?
% of organic composition of alveolar bone?
Forces alveolar bone can best resist? (2)
- Compressive forces
- Forces directed along the long axis of the tooth
Forces alveolar bone can least resist? (2)
- Tensile forces
- Slicing forces
Functions of alveolar bone? (4)
- Support and protection
- Attachment of muscles
- Reservoir of minerals
Part of maxilla and mandible with the teeth and alveolar sockets?
It is where the alveolar process rests.
True or false. Proper development of tooth depends on the alveolar process?
Proper development of alveolar process is dependent on tooth eruption
True or false. Alveolar process may be found in newborns?
False. No teeth, no alveolar process
True or false. If bone is lost, remodeling occurs and alveolar process is restored
False. No more alveolar process after bone remodeling
It is what occurs after remodeling of alveolar bone.
Compose of outer and inner cortical plate of bone that encloses the spongiosa?
Other terms for spongy bone?
Trabecular or cancellous bone
Lines the alveolus contained within the alveolar process?
Alveolar bone proper
Perforations of the alveolar bone?
It is formed by the coronal rim of the alveolar bone.
Alveolar bone parallels the CEJ at a distance of ____ apical to it.
True or false. Alveolar bone proper may be fused with the cortical plate of the alveolar process?
Radiographic term for alveolar bone proper?
Cell responsible for mineralization of bone?
Osteoblasts synthesize what? (2)
- Type I and IV collagen
Osteoblasts are derived from what cells?
Mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC and liver; CB-MSC)
When bone formation stops, osteoblasts become inactive and termed as?
Bone lining cells
True or false. The faster bone formation, the more osteocytes trapped.
Cells responsible for osteolysis and osteoplasia?
Cells that prevent hypermineralization of bone by pumping Ca back to the blood stream?
True or false. After bone formation, osteocytes lose the ability to form matrix and becomes smaller?
Limited resorption of bone in lacunae and canals?
Secondary rebuilding of perilacunar bone mineral?
Osteoclasts are located on?
Organelle-poor brush like cytoplasmic border of osteoclasts which demarcates the bone of resorption?
Ruffled border of osteoclast release what? (2)
- Proteolytic enzymes
Part of osteoclasts attached to bone during resorption?
Sequence of resorptive events (4)
- osteoclast attach to bone
- creates sealed environment
- releases acid to demineralize hard tissues
- secretes proteolytic enzymes to degrade organic matrix
Encloses the entire bone forming outer and inner perimeter?
Makes up the bulk of compact bone?
Fragments of preexisting concentric lamellae from osteons created during remodeling?
Fibrous membrane that surrounds the compact bone?
Periosteum that contains bone cells and precursors?
Periosteum which is more fibrous and gives rise to Sharpey's fibers?
It separates the bone surface from the bone marrow?
Lamellae of bone that are arranged in flattened spicules?
3 structures of the alveolar bone?
- Cortical plate
- Alveolar bone proper
Cortical plate is continuous with the alveolar bone proper at the?
Cortical plate is thicker in the mandible or maxilla?
Cortical plate is greater on labial or lingual side?
Bone found in areas of recent apposition penetrated by the Sharpey's fiber?
2 locations of hematopoietic marrow?
- Maxillary tuberosity
- Angle of mandible
Spongiosa is more in maxilla or in mandible?
3 mechanisms of bone formation/ossification?
- Sutural bone growth
True or false. In endochondral ossification, cartilage develops and becomes the bone.
False. Cartilage is replaced/substituted by bone
Endochondral ossification occurs where?
In the condyles
Type of ossification in which bone develops directly from fibrous tissue?
Intramembranous ossification is found where? (3)
- Body of mandible
- Cranial vault
Cartilage of the first branchial arch?
Meckel's cartilage is found on mesial or distal side of mandible?
When does intramembranous ossification of mandible begins?
At the 7th week
When is rudimentary mandible formed?
At the 10th week
Fates of Meckel's cartilage. (4)
- Sphenomandibular ligament
- Sphenomalleolar ligament
Cartilages of the mandible. (3)
- Condylar cartilage (12th week)
- Coronoid cartilage (4th month)
- Symphysis cartilage (obliterated w/in the 1st yr)
Only cartilage that remains in the mandible?
Incremental lines of alveolar bone?
Alveolar line formed by new bone layer and resorption?
Line found on the surface of inactive bone?
Line formed by new bone layer from inactive old bone
True or false. Thicker trabeculae and smaller marrow spaces indicates increased function?
True or false. Thin trabeculae with wider marrow spaces indicates decreased function?
Pressure to bone results to _____?
Tension to bone results to ______?
It depends on the functional and nutritional demands of bone.
An important diagnostic landmark of alveolar bone?
Window-like defect in which the bone resorb locally and cause the root to be seen?
Occurs when the rim of the bone between the fenestration and the alveolar crest disappeared together?
Hyperfunction of the pituitary gland which causes overgrowth of bone?