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24 Neurodegenerative diseases > Alzheimer disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alzheimer disease Deck (15)
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1

Enhancement of which neurotransmitter is beneficial in AD?

Acetylcholine.

2

Central acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used in AD - 3 drugs

Donepezil
Rivastigmine
Galantamine

3

Donepezil - adverse effects

Bradycardia
Diarrhea, GI bleeding, nausea vomiting.

4

Rivastigmine, galantamine - adverse effects

Bradycardia and AV block.
Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss.

5

Rivastigmine - interactions

Nicotine use increases oral clearance.

6

Galantamine - interactions

Inhibitors of CYP2D6 increase serum levels.

7

Drugs used for AD - other than central acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - 4 drugs

Memantine
Caprylidene
Dextromethorphan+quinidine

8

Memantadine - MOA

Antagonist at NMDA receptors. Attenuates the excitotoxic effects of glutamate.

9

Memantadine - adverse effects

Confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia.

10

Memantadine - interactions

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce elimination

11

In AD there is a decrease glucose uptake by the brain. Which drug can help, and MOA

Caprylidene.
Metabolized into ketone bodies that the brain can use instead of glucose

12

Caprylidene - indications

Age-associated memory impairment, AD

13

Dextromethorphan + quinidine - why are they combined for neurodegenerative diseases?

Dextromethorphan: Reduces emotional lability.
Quinidine: inhibits CYP2D6 – increases levels of dextromethorphan which is metabolized by CYP2D6

14

Dextromethorphan + quinidine: indications

Emotional lability (psuedobulbar affect) in AD, MS, ALS

15

Dextromethorphan - MOA

Inhibits excitatory glutamate release by agonist action at σ1-receptors and block NMDA receptors