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Flashcards in Amino Acids Deck (120)
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Essential amino acids groups

1. Glucogenic
2. Glucogenic/ketogenic
3. Ketogenic

1

Form of amino acids that are found in proteins

L form

2

All.....amino acids need to be supplied in the diet

Essential

3

A ketogenic amino acid is an amino acid that....

can be degraded directly into acetyl CoA through ketogenesis

4

Essential glucogenic amino acids

1. Methionine (Met)
2. Valine (Val)
3. Histidine (His)

5

Glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that.....

Can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis

6

Essential ketogenic amino acids

1. Leucine (Leu)
2. Lysine (Lys)

7

Essential glucogenic/ketogenic amino acids

1. Isoleucine (ile)
2. Phenylalanine
3. Threonine
4. Tryptophan

9

Acidic amino acids and charge

Aspartic acid (Asp)
Glutamic acid (Glu)
both negative

10

Basic amino acids and charge

Arginine (Arg) - positive
Lysine (lys) - positive
Histidine (his) - no charge

10

Amino acids required during periods of growth

Arginine
Histidine

11

The most basic amino acid

Arginine

12

Amino acids of histones

Arginine
Lysine

13

Amino acid catabolism result in the formation of

Common metabolites (pyruvate, acetyl CoA e.g.), which serves as metabolic fluids

14

Amino acid catabolism result in excess

Nitrogen (NH3)

15

Nitrogen is converted to

Urea and excreted by the kidneys

16

Urea cycle - reactions and locations

- CO2 + NH3 + 2ATP --> carbamoyl phosphate + 2ADP + P ( carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and N-acetygkutamate as a cofactor) (Mitochondria)
- Carbamoyl phosphate + ornithine --> citrulline Ornithine transcarbamylase) (Mitochondria)
- Citruline + aspartate + ATP--> AMP + PPi + Argininosuccinate (arginossuccinate synthetase)
Cytoplasm
- Argininosuccinate --> arginine and fumarate (arginosuccinase) Cytoplasm
- arginine + H20 --> UREA + Ornithine (Arginase) cytoplasm

17

Urea productuon reaction
Location

Arginine + H2O --> ornithine + Urea
Enzyme arginase
Location:cytoplasm of liver

18

Urea production location

Cytoplasm of liver

19

Location of ornithine transcarbamylase action

Mitochondria of the liver

20

Ornithine transcarbamylase reaction
Location

Carbamoyl phosphate + ornithine --> citrulline
Mitochondria

21

Arginosuccinate: next step

To arginine and fumarate (arginosuccinase)

22

Urea structure

NH2 (NH3)
|
C=O (CO2)
|
NH2 (aspartate)

23

Arginosuccinate: next step

To arginine and fumarate (arginosuccinase)

24

Urea is excreted by

Kidney

25

Urea cycle site

Both Mitochondria and cytoplasm of the liver

26

Enzyme responsible for urea production

Arginase

27

Aminoacids(NH3) to a-ketoacids causes

A ketoglutarate to glutamate(NH3)

28

Glutamate(NH3) to a-ketoglutorate causes

Pyruvate to alanine (NH3)

29

Cori cycle

Glucose to pyruvate to lactate (muscle)
Lactate to pyruvate to glucose (liver)
Glucose back to muscle