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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (143)
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1

Fat soluble vitamins

A,D,E,K

2

Toxicity is most common with fat or water soluble vitamins (why)

Fat soluble (accumulate in fat)

2

How does mineral oil influence influence fat soluble vitamins absorption

Mineral oil (laxative) can cause fat-soluble deficiencies

3

Which syndromes can cause fat soluble vitamin deficiencies
Examples

Malabsorption syndromes steatorrhe
Ex. Cystic fibrosis, sprue

5

Water soluble vitamins

B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C

B1-3, 5-7, 9, 12
C

5

B vitamins complex deficiencies often result in

1. Dermatitis
2. Glossitis
3. Diarrhea

6

Which water soluble vitamins does not wash out easily from the body (explain)

B12 --> liver for 3-4 years
Folate --> liver for 3-4 months
(Stored in the liver)

7

Vitamin A ( retinol) function

1. Antioxidant 2. Constituent of normal visual pigment (retinal) 3. Essential of normal epithelial cells into specialized tissue (pancr cells, mucus secreting cells) 4. Prevent squamous metaplasia

8

Water soluble vitamins and their name

B1 --> Thiamine
B2 --> Riboflavin
B3 --> niacin
B5 --> pantothenic acid
B6 --> pyridoxine
B7 --> biotin
B9 --> folate
B12 --> cobolamin
C --> ascorbic acid

9

Vitamin A (retinol) is founded to

Liver and leafy vegetables

10

Vitamin A (retinol) is used to

1. Treat measles (all trans retinoic)
2. Treat AML (M3) (all trans retinoic)
3. Topically for wrinkles and acne (oral isotretinoin)

12

Deficiency of vitamin A (retinol)

1. Night blindness (nyctalopia)
2. Dry scaly skin (xerosis cutis)
3. Bitot spots on conjunctiva
4. Corneal degeneration (keratomalacia)
5. Immune suppression

13

Before isotretinoin prescription for severe acne what is needed

(-) pregnancy test and reliable contraception

14

Vitamin A (retinol) excess

1. arthralgias 2. Skin changes (scaliness) 3. Alopecia 4. Cerebral edema 5. Pseudo-tumor cerebri 6. Osteoporosis 7. Hepatic toxicity and enlargment
8. Teratogenic (cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities)
if acute --> nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and blurred vision

14

Vitamine D forms

D2 - ergocalciferol
D3 - cholecalciferol

15

Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) - source

Is ingested from plants

16

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) forms

1. 25-OH D3 = storage form
2. 1,25-(OH) D3 (calcitriol) = active form

17

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) - source

1. Consumed in milk
2. Formed in sun - exposed skin (stratum basale)

18

Vitamin D defiency

1. Rickets (children) - bone pain and deformity
2. Osteomalacia (adults) - bone pain and muscle weakness)
3. Hypocalcemia tetany

19

Vitamin D function

1. Increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate
2. Increases bone mineralization (at low levels)
3. increases bone resorption at higher levels

20

Breastfed infants - vit D

Breastfed infants should receive oral vit D
Breast milk has not enough vitamin D

21

Rickets symptoms

Bone pain and deformity in children

22

Vitamin D deficiency is exacerbated by (in infants)

1. Low sun exposure
2. Pigmented skin
3. Prematurity

23

Osteomalacia symptoms

Bone pain and muscle weakness

24

Vitamin D Excess findings

1. Hypercalcemia
2. Hypercalciuria
3. Loss of apettite
4. Stupor

25

Excess vitamin D is seen in:

granoulomatosis (increased activation of vitamin D by epitheloid macrophages)

26

Ricktes on x rays

Legs in toddler show bowing of femurs (genu varum)

27

Vitamin E name

Tocopherol / tocotrienol

28

Vitamin E vs vitamin B12 deficiency

Neurologic presentation of vit E deficiency may appear similar to B12 deficiency, but without megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented neutrophils, or increased serum methylmalonic acid

29

Vitamin E function

1. Antioxidant (protect erythrocytes and membranes from free radicals damage
2. Enhance anticoagulant effects of warfarin