Glycolysis, TCA cycle, pyruvate, electron transport chain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Glycolysis, TCA cycle, pyruvate, electron transport chain Deck (76)
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Glycolysis site

Cytoplasm

1

Glycolysis site and all steps (not the enzymes)

Cytoplasm
Glucose --> Glucose-6-P --> Fructose-6-P -->
Fructose-1,6-BP --> Gltceraldehyde-3-P --> 1,3 biphosphoglycerate --> 3-phosphoglycerate --> 2-phosphoglycerate --> phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
--> Pyruvate

2

Hexokinase regulation

Glucose -6-P -

3

Glycolysis steps that require ATP

Glucose to 6-P- glucose (hexokinase/glucokinase)
Fructose 6-P to fructose -1,6- BP (phosphofrouktokinase

4

Glucokinase regulation

Fructose-6-P -

5

Glucokinase vs hexokinase about location

Glucokinase in liver and β cells of pancreas
Hexokinase in all other tissues

6

Glycolysis stpes that produce ATP

1,3-Biphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate (phosphoglycerate kinase)
Phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate (pyruvate kinase)

7

Glycolysis stpes that produce ATP

1,3-Biphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate (phosphoglycerate kinase)
Phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate (pyruvate kinase)

8

Fructose-6-P to fructose-2,6-BP

Phosphofructokinase -2 (activate in fed state)

9

Fructose -2,6-biphosphate enzymes (and active when)

1. Fructose bisphosphate-2 --> active in fasting
2. Phosphofructokinase-2 --> active in fed

10

Fructose-2,6-BP to fructose-6-P

Fructose bisphosphatase-2 (active in fasting state)

11

Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate/fasting state

Glucagon --> increased cAMP --> increased protein kinase A --> increased fructose bisphosphatase-2, decreased phosphofuctokinase-2,less glycolysis, more gluconeogenesis

12

Fructose bisphosphate-2 vs Phosphofructokinase-2 according to action and regulation

Are the same bifunctional enzyme whose function is reversed by phosphorylation

13

Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate/fed state

Insulin --> decreased cAMP --> decreased protein kinase A --> decreased fructose bisphosphatase-2, increased phosphofuctokinase-2, more glycolysis, less gluconeogenesis

14

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex site
What does it link?

MITOCHONDRIAL ENZYME complex linking glycolysis and TCA cycle

15

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex regulation

Active in fed state, not in fasting

16

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reaction

Pyruvate + NAD + CoA --> acetyl CoA + CO2 + NADH

17

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contain how many enzymes

3

18

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex cofactors

1. Pyrophosphate (B1, TPP)
2. FAD (riboflavin B2)
3. NAD (B3, niacin)
4. CoA (B5, pantothenate)
5. Lipoic acid

20

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activated in by

1. increased NAD+/NADH ratio
2. increased ADP
3. Increased Ca2+

21

The Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is similar to

a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (same cofactors, similar substrate and action

21

Lipoic acid inhibitor

Arsenic

22


a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex converts

a-ketoglutarate --> succinyl-CoA (TCA)

23

Arsenic acid inhibits lipoic acids. Findings

1. Vomiting
2. Rice water stools
3. Garlic breath

24

Arsenic action

Inhibit glycolysis
Inhibit lipoic acid (dehydrogenase complex)

25

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency causes

A buildup of pyruvate that gets shunted to lactate (via LDH) and alanine (via ALT)

26

Glycolysis pathway (mediators)

Glucose glucose-6-P fructose-6-P fructose-1-6-BP glyceraldehyde-3-P 1,3-biphosphoglycerate
2-phosphoglycerate phosphoenolpyruvate --> pyruvate

28

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency treatments

Increased intake of ketogenic nutrients (high fat content or increased lysine and leucine

28

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency findings

1. Neurologic defects
2. Lactic acidosis
3. Serum alanine starting in infancy

29

Ketogenic amino acid vs glucogenic aminoacid

A ketogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be degraded directly into acetyl CoA through ketogenesis. This is in contrast to the glucogenic amino acids, which are converted into glucose.