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Flashcards in ana surge 3 Deck (193):
1

Boundary between CNS and PNS

Anterior horn cells

2

Connects the R and L brain

Corpus callosum

3

Most inferior part of the brain

Cerebellar tonsils

4

Broca's Area

Brodmann 44,45 - opercular/triangular parts of inferior frontal gyrus

5

Wernicke's Area

Brodmann's Area 22 - superior temporal gyrus

6

Major arteries in 4 vessel angiography

R and L internal carotids, R and L vertebral arteries

7

White matter and Gray matter: brain vs spinal cord

Brain - white inside, grey outside. Spinal Cord - white outside, grey inside.

8

Total number of bones in the skeletal system

206

9

Cube shaped bones that contain mostly spongy bone

Short bones - carpals, tarsals

10

Shaft of the bone

Diaphysis - compact bone

11

Ends of the bone

Epiphysis - spongy bone

12

Decreases friction at joint surfaces

Articular cartilage - made of hyaline cartilage

13

Gives rise to the bone, cartilages and muscle

Mesoderm

14

Classification of joints based on mobility

Synarthroses - immoveable. Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable. Diarthroses - freely moveable.

15

Example of pivot joints

C1 and C2

16

Examples of fibrous joints

Sutures, syndesmoses

17

Example of cartilaginous joints

Pubic symphysis, intervertebral joinys

18

Gomphosis is what kind of joint?

Tooth and socket of mandible and maxilla - synarthrosis/immoveable fibrous joint

19

Kind of synovial joint: wrist

Ellipsoidal

20

Synovial joint: carpometacarpal of thumb

Saddle

21

Synovial joint: shoulder, hip

Ball and socket

22

Synovial joint: atlantoaxial, radioulnar

Pivot

23

Structures covered by axillary fascia

Axillary vein, axillary artery, brachial plexus

24

Weakest area of rotator cuff muscles

Inferior, prone to dislocation - axillary nerve affected

25

Muscles innervated by suprascapular nerve

Supraspinatus (adbuctor), Infraspinatus (lateral rotator)

26

Muscles innervated by the axillary nerve

Teres minor (lateral rotator), Deltoid (abductor)

27

Most commonly inflamed rotator cuffuscle

Supraspinatus - pain during abduction

28

Medial rotator of the shoulder

Subscapularis - upper subscapular nerve

29

Borders of Quadrangular space that contains the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral vessels

Above - teres minor, below - teres major, medial - long head of triceps brachii, lateral - surgical neck of humerus

30

Injury to musculocutaneous nerve

Difficulty flexing arm and supinating forearm

31

Triceps brachii innervated bu?

Radial nerve

32

All flexor muscles of the forearm are innervated by the median nerve except?

FCU (superficial) and FDP (deep) - Ulnar nerve

33

2 innervations of FDP in the arm

Lateral side - median nerve, Medial side - ulnar nerve

34

Medial epicondyle of humerus: origin of?

FLEXOR tendon - pronator teres, FCR, palmaris longis, FCU, FDS

35

Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus: origin of?

EXTENSOR tendon - ECRB, ED, EDM, ECU, Anconeus, Supinator

36

Innervation of extensor muscles of forearm

Radial nerve

37

Roots of the Brachial Plexus

C5, C6, C7, C8, T1

38

Innervation of serratus anterior muscle

Long thoracic nerve - C5 to C7 roots of brachial plexus

39

Origin of musculocutaneous nerve

Lateral cord of brachial plexus (C5-C7) - anterior flexors of arm and supination of forearm

40

Origin of axillary nerve

Posterior cord (C5 and C6) - supplies deltoid and teres minor

41

Origin of Radial Nerve

Posterior cord (C5,C6,C7,C8,T1) - supplies extensor muscles of arm and forearm

42

Origin of thoracodorsal nerve

Posterior cord (C6,C7,C8) - innervates latissimus dorsi

43

Lesion of C5 and C6 in superior trunk of brachial plexus

Erb Duchenne's syndrome - "waiter's tip"

44

Lesion in the C8 and T1 ventral rami in the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus

Klumpke's Paralysis - ape hand and a claw hand

45

Area where long thoracic nerve is commonly injured

Courses superficial to the serratus anterior - lateral wall of thorax (radical mastecty, stab wounds)

46

Long thoracic nerve injury

Winging of scapula

47

Lesion results to difficulty elevating the trunk or using a crutch

Thoracodorsal nerve lesions - latissimus dorsi muscle affected

48

Nerve lesion due to spiral fracture of the midshaft of the humerus

Radial nerve - wrist drop

49

Proximal median nerve lesion

Hand of Benediction - supracondylar fracture of the humerus

50

Distal median nerve lesion

Ape hand or weakness in opposition of fingers - carpal tunnel syndrome/lunate dislocation

51

Ulnar nerve distal lesion

Claw hand or weakness in the ability to abduct and adduct fingers (hold a piece of paper in between fingers) - fracture in hook of hamate

52

Divides the axillary artery into 3 parts

Tendon of pectoralis minor

53

Branch of 3rd part of axillary artery that supplies the anterior serratus muscle

Thoracodorsal artery

54

Most commonly fractured bone in the body

Clavicle - first to begin ossification, last to complete ossification

55

Colles vs Smith Radial Fractures

Colles - silver fork deformity, distal segment posteriorly displaced. Smith's - distal segment anteriorly displaced.

56

Total number of carpals per hand

8

57

Pain and tenderness over anatomical snuffbox

Scaphoid fracture - most commonly fractured

58

Anterior dislocation may cause carpal tunnel syndrome

Lunate - most commonly dislocated

59

Fracture at the base of the first metacarpal bone

Bennett's fracture

60

Fracture at the necks of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals

Boxer's fracture

61

Nerve compressed in carpal tunnel syndrome

Median nerve

62

Muscle that flexes distal IP joints

Flexor digitorum profundus

63

Innervation of thenar and hypothenar muscles

Thenar - median nerve. Hypothenar - ulnar nerve.

64

Lymphatic drainage of R head and neck/R thorax/ R upper limb

Right lymphatic duct that drains to R brachiocephalic. The rest is drained by thoracic duct that drains to L brachiocephalic.

65

Anterior thigh muscles innervation

Femoral nerve

66

Posterior thigh muscles innervation

Sciatic nerve

67

Medial thigh muscles innervation

Obturator nerve

68

Strongest flexor of thigh and hip joint

Iliopsoas or Psoas major

69

Tensor fascia lata innervation

Superior gluteal nerve - muscle is part of anterior thigh muscles

70

Quadriceps femoris muscle that crosses above the hip joint

Rectus femoris - flexes hip joint

71

Origin of Sartorius

ASIS

72

Origin of rectus femoris

AIIS

73

Insertion of iliacus and psoas

Lesser trochanter of femur

74

Insertion of quadriceps femoris

Patellar tendon

75

Dual nerve innervation of Adductor magnus (medial thigh muscle)

Medial or adductor part - obturator nerve. Posterior or hamstring part - sciatic nerve.

76

Insertion of adductor muscles

Linea aspera of femur

77

Insertion of hamstring part of adductor magnus

Adductor tubercle of femur

78

Innervation of semitendinosus and semimembranosus (hamstring muscles)

Tibial division of sciatic nerve

79

Common origin of hamstring muscles

Ischial tuberosity

80

Contents of Adductor canal (Subsartorial canal/Hunter's canal)

Femoral artery and vein, saphenous nerve, nerve to vastus medialis

81

Innervates gluteus medius, minimus and tensor fascia lata

Superior gluteal nerve

82

Innervates gluteal maximus

Inferior gluteal nerve

83

Abductor and medial rotator of thigh

Gluteus medius and minimus

84

Extensor of thigh

Gluteus maximus

85

Common origin of gluteal muscles

Outer surface of ilium

86

Insertion of gluteus maximus

Gluteal tuberosity, along iliotibial tract

87

Insertion of quadratus femoris

Quadrate tubercle

88

Lateral rotators of thigh

Piriformis, obturator internus, superior and inferior gemelli, quadratus femoris

89

Formed within the Psoas major muscle by the ventral rami of L1-L4

Lumbar Plexus

90

From L1, supplies skin on the lower part of anterior abdominal wall

Iliohypogastric nerve - from lateral border of Psoas

91

From L1, supply skin of the groin and scrotum/labia majora

Ilioinguinal nerve - lateral border of psoas muscle

92

From L1 and L2, genital branch (cremaster muscle) and femoral branch (skin on thigh)

Genitofemoral - anterior surface of psoas muscle

93

From L2 and L3, skin over lateral surface of the thigh

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve - lateral border of psoas

94

Nerves in lumbar plexus that emerge from the lateral border of the psoas muscle

Iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, lateral femoral cutaneous, femoral nerves

95

Largest branch of the lumbar plexus

Femoral nerve

96

Formed by anterior rami of L4 and L5 and S1-S4. Located in front of the piriformis muscle

Sacral plexus

97

Branches of the sacral plexus to the lower limb leave the pelvis through the?

Greater sciatic foramen

98

Largest nerve in the body. From L4-S3.

Sciatic nerve

99

Lesion: difficulty climbing stairs or rising from a sitting position

Inferior gluteal nerve - gluteus maximus

100

Nerve that can be damaged with an abscess in the psoas major

Femoral nerve - dimished patellar tendon reflex

101

Nerve lesion: pain and paresthesia in the medial aspect of the leg and foot, no weakness

Saphenous nerve

102

Femoral neck shaft angle changes

Coxa vara - decreased. Coxa valga - increased.

103

Major supply of femoral head that prevents avascular necrosis

Medial femoral circumflex artery

104

Thigh is shortened and externally rotates

Fracture of the neck of the femur

105

Thigh is shortened and internally rotated

Posterior dislocation of the femoral head - sciatic nerve may be compressed

106

Innervation of anterior leg muscles

Deer peroneal nerve - dorsiflexion and extension

107

Innervation of lateral leg muscles

Superficial peroneal nerve - plantar flexion and eversion

108

Innervation of posterior leg muscles

Tibial nerve - plantar flexion and flexion

109

Muscles that invert the foot

Tibialis anterior (deep peroneal nerve), Tibialis posterior (tibial nerve)

110

Innervated by tibial nerve that unlocks the knee

Popliteus

111

Innervation of muscles of the sole

Lateral plantar nerve

112

Muscles of the sole innervates by medial plantar nerve

Abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, flexor hallucis brevis, 1st lumbrical

113

External iliac artery crosses the inguinal ligament to become the?

Femoral artery

114

Landmark for dorsalis pedis pulse

Between malleoli or 1st intermetatarsal space

115

Nerve lesion: foot drop

Common peroneal nerve or common fibular nerve - cannot dorsiflex foot while walking

116

Leg muscle that everts the foot

Peroneus - superficial peroneal nerve

117

Most frequently injured nerve in the lower limb

Common peroneal / Fibular nerve

118

Nerve lesion: cab't stand on tip toes

Tibial nerve

119

Knee joint: synovial gliding joint

Between patella and femur

120

Knee joint: synovial hinge joint

Between femur and tibia

121

Prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia

ACL - lax during flexion, from anterior aspect of tibia to lateral condyle of femur

122

Prevents anterior displacement of the femur on tibia

PCL - lax during extension, from posterior aspect of the tibia to the medial condyle of femur

123

Injury to ACL, MCL, and medial meniscus

Unhappy triad of O Donoghue - violent blow on lateral side of knee, leg is abducted and laterally rotated

124

Rupture of the medial/tibial collateral ligament

Knock knee or genu valgum

125

Rupture of the lateral or fibular collateral ligament

Bowleg or genu varum

126

Injured ankle ligament in inversion injury

Anterior talofibular ligament

127

Avulsion of the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal

Jones Fracture

128

Eversion injury or Pott Fracture

Avulsion of medial malleolus, fracture of the fibula due to the lateral movement of the talus

129

Total number of bones in the skull

22

130

Skull fracture at pterion

May lacerate middle meningeal artery (epidural hematoma), medial part of temporal lobe herniation (compress brainstem)

131

Fracture on petrous portion of temporal bone

Blood or CSF escapes from ear

132

Fracture on anterior cranial fossa

Fracture of cribriform plate (CN 1) - anosmia, raccoon eyes, CSF leakage from nose

133

General term for premature closure of suturs

Craniosynostosis

134

Premature closure of sagittal suture

Scaphocephaly - long and narrow skull

135

Premature closure of coronal suture

Oxycephaly or Acrocephaly - short, high skull "tower skull"

136

Premature closure of coronal and lambdoid sutures on 1 side of the skull

Plagiocephaly

137

Primary brain vesicles

Forebrain - Prosencephalon. Midbrain - Mesencephalon. Hindbrain - Rhombencephalon.

138

Division of prosencephalon and rhombencephalon

Happens on 5th week

139

Derivatives of brain vesicles: Telencephalon

Cerebrum

140

Derivatives of brain vesicles: diencephalon

Thalamus

141

Derivatives of brain vesicles: mesencephalon

Midbrain

142

Derivatives of brain vesicles: metencephalon

Pons, cerebellum

143

Derivatives of brain vesicles: myelencephalon

Medulla

144

Closure of neural tube happens on the?

4th week

145

Neural crest derivatives

Pigment cells of retina, cells of adrenal medulla

146

Meninges of brain and spinal cord

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

147

Arterial supply of dura mater

Middle meningeal artery

148

Danger area of the scalp

Loose connective tissue - contains emissary veins where infection can spread

149

Sickle shaped fold of dura mater that lies in the midline between 2 cerebral hemispheres

Falx cerebri

150

Crescent shaped fold of dura mater that roofs over the posterior cranial fossa

Tentorium cerebelli - supports the occipital lobes

151

Inmervation of dura mater

Above the tentorium - trigeminal nerve. Below the tentorium - first 3 cervical nerves.

152

Vascular membrane that closely invests the brain covering the gyri and descending into the deepest sulci

Pia mater

153

Lobes of the cerebrum

Frontal - motor. Parietal - somesthetic. Occipital - visual. Temporal - hearing.

154

Pyramidal System: voluntary control of skeletal muscles

Corticobulbar, Lateral corticospinal, Anterior corticospinal

155

Signs of UMN lesions

Spastic paralysis, (-) atrophy, (-) fasciculations, (+) clonus, (+) pathologic reflexes, increased muscle tone

156

Signs of LMN lesion

Flaccid paralysis, (+) atrophy, (+) fasciculations, (-) clonus, (-) pathologic reflexes, decreased muscle tone

157

Cerebellar lobe: coordination of limb movements and regulation of muscle tone

Anterior lobe - Paleocerebellum or Spinocerebellum

158

Cerebellar lobe: coordination of voluntary movements

Posterior lobe - Neocerebellum or Cerebrocerebellum

159

Cerebellar lobe: coordination of para-axial muscles associated with equilibrium

Floculonodular lobe - Archicerebellum

160

Signs of lesions in posterior lobe

Ataxia, Dysmetria, Dysdiadochokinesia

161

Failure to recognize stimuli perceived by senses

Agnosia - visual, tactile or auditory

162

Motor disability, inability to carry out learned or purposive movements

Apraxia

163

Production of CSF found in subarachnoid space

Choroid plexuses

164

Dopamine is secreted by the?

Substantia nigra in the basal ganglia

165

Movement disorders: negative vs positive signs

Negative - actions that the patient wants to perform but cannot. Positive - actions the patient does not want to perform but cannot prevent.

166

Abnormalities here will result to movement disorders

Basal ganglia

167

Another name for Parkinson's disease

Paralysis agitans - degeneration of substantia nigra

168

Degeneration of striatal neurons and depletion of Acetyl CoA

Chorea - involuntary, irregular, jerking movements

169

Results from damage to the contralateral subthalamic nucleus

Hemiballismus

170

"Kissing muscle"

Orbicularis oris - CN VII

171

Loss of taste and common sensation of tongue posteriorly

CN IX - glossopharyngeal

172

Hemiparalysis of the tongue, deviation towards the weak side

CN XII - hypoglossal nerve

173

Muscle that divides the subclavian artery into 3 parts

Scalenous anterior

174

Most common locations of berry aneurysms

Circle of Willis - ACA, PCA, MCA

175

Development of facial muscles

Mesoderm in the 2nd pharyngeal arches

176

Smiling muscle

Zygomaticus - CN VII

177

Grinning muscle

Risorius - CN VII

178

Blowing or "trumpeteer's muscle"

Buccinator - CN VII

179

Formed by the union of the superficial temporal and maxillary veins

Retromandibular vein

180

Anterior branch of retromandibular vein

Joins the facial vein to form the common facial vein

181

Posterior branch of retromandibular vein

Joins the posterior auricular vein to form the external jugular vein

182

Innervation of muscles of mastication

CN V - Trigeminal nerve

183

Muscle of mastication that opens the jaw

Lateral Pterygoid

184

Muscle that closes the eyelids

Orbicularis oculi - CN VII facial nerve

185

Nerve lesion: jaw deviates to the weak side

CN V - trigeminal nerve

186

Divides the tongue into R and L halves

Median groove or median sulcus

187

Divides the tongue into anterior and posterior parts

V shaped sulcus terminalis

188

Remnant of thyroglossal duct thats marks the apex of the tongue

Foramen cecum

189

Only muscle of the tongue innervated by Vagus nerve

Palatoglossus

190

Innervation of extraocular muscles

CN III, except LR 6 and SO 4

191

Lesion in oculomotor nucleus and nerve

Eyeball down and out

192

Lesion in abducent nucleus and nerve

Medial deviation or esotropia and paralysis of abduction of the ipsilateral eye

193

Lesion in trochlear nucleus and nerve

Outward rotation of the superior part of eye, compensated by tilting of the head