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Flashcards in physioj Deck (117):
1

In the cell cycle, when does a new nuclear membrane develop?

Telophase

2

In the cell cycle, when do spindle fibers form?

Prophase

3

What do you call division of the cytoplasm into two cells?

Cytokinesis

4

Ca that demonstrates a nucleus with no nucleolus

Papillary thyroid Ca - Orphan Annie

5

Smooth ER is involved mostly in detoxication and synthesis of lipids. Where is it commonly found?

Liver

6

"Protein factory" of the cell that is found in the liver, neurons, pancreas and thyroid

Rough ER

7

Rough ER in the neurons

Nissl substance

8

What wear and tear pigment accumulates in the lysosome?

Lipofuscin

9

A microtubule motor protein causing transport from the center of the cell to the periphery

Kinesin

10

A microtubule motor protein causing transport from the periphery of the cell to the center

Dynein

11

Disease with dynein missing in cilia and flagella

Kartagener's syndrome

12

What is the functional unit of a gap junction

Connexon

13

Disc shaped junctional complex that allows firm intercellular adhesions

Macula adherens/desmosomes

14

What are the 3 components of a glycocalyx?

Glycoprotein, Glycolipids, Proteoglycans

15

Which disease involves a mutation in a gene of Chromosome 7 that encodes for an ABC transporter called CFTR

Cystic fibrosis

16

Mediate secretion of hormones, neurotransmitters from intracellular vesicles during exocytosis

SNARE proteins

17

Which effective osmole is used in the treatment of brain edema?

Mannitol

18

What are the 2 important functions of the Na-K pump?

Maintains electrical potential across the membrane and prevents cellular swelling

19

What is the functional subunit of the Na-K-ATPase pump that is inhibited by cardiac glycosides?

Alpha subunit

20

What is the earliest sign of ASA toxicity?

Tinnitus

21

What cells cause myelination in your CNS? PNS?

CNS - oligodendrocytes. PNS - Schwann cells.

22

What kind of conduction happens in your nodes of ranvier?

Saltatory or jumping

23

Enzyme that degrades Ach to acetate and choline

Acetylcholinesterase

24

Where is dopamine found?

Substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area

25

Where is the "happy hormone" secreted?

Serotonin - median raphe of the brainstem

26

The number 1 inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain

GABA

27

What are the functions of GABA?

GABA - A is chloride influx, GABA - B is potassium efflux

28

What is the number 1 excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?

Glutamate

29

Which neurotransmitter is deficient in Alzheimer's Disease?

Acetylcholine

30

Site of decussation of the corticospinal tract

Medulla

31

What connects your 2 cerebral hemispheres?

Corpus callosum

32

Loss of accommodation due to paralysis of ciliary muscle

Cycloplegia

33

What produces the aqueous humor and where does it exit?

Produces by ciliary body and exits into the canal of schlemm

34

What is the difference between rods and cones in the eye?

Rods - nighttime vision, Cones - daytime vision

35

Depression in macula lutea with the highest cone density

Fovea

36

Deterioration of pigment epithelium in the eye

Macular degeneration

37

Night blindness due to Vit A deficiency

Nyctopia

38

Genetic defect in Type I procollagen, sclera appears blue

Osteogenesis imperfecta

39

Hexosaminidase A deficiency where patients have a characteristic macular "cherry red spot" appearance

Tay - Sach's Disease

40

Define occupational hearing loss

More than 10yrs exposure to daily 8 hour sound levels of >85dB

41

Part of the outer ear that functions to amplify and localize sound

Pinna

42

What is the content of the Endolymph? Perilymph?

Endolymph - potassium, Perilymph - sodium.

43

True or false: low frequency sounds are more damaging to the Organ of Corti

TRUE

44

Fibers used by the sense of smell

Unmyelinated C fibers

45

Components of a fast twitch muscle

Type II, fast, large, more active, high myosin ATPase

46

Components of unitary smooth muscles

Muscle units act together as one, (+) gap junctions, (+) spike and plateau potentials, may exhibit spontaneous contractions, found in intestines/bile ducts/ureters

47

Plasma membrane that surrounds the muscle fiber

Sarcolemma

48

Functional unit of the muscle with thick and thin filaments

Sarcomere

49

Largest protein in the body, tethers myosin to Z lines

Titin

50

Stabilizes plasmalemma and prevents contraction induced rupture

Dystrophin

51

Effect that states each contraction occurs after complete relaxation

Staircase (Treppe) Effect

52

Components of an isometric contraction

Length is held constant, no muscle shortening or lengthening

53

True or false: muscle fatigue occurs earlier in slow twitch fibers

FALSE

54

Type of calcium channels in the cardiac muscle

Voltage gated L type slow calcium channel

55

Rope like structures of the cytoskeleton that may act as tumor markers

Intermediate filaments

56

Spinal cord neuron that facilitates lateral inhibition

Renshaw cell

57

True or false: muscle spindle detects length while golgi tendon organ detects tension

TRUE

58

Components of dynamic change and static change in a muscle spindle

Dynamic change - sudden stretch, mediated by NUCLEAR BAG (group Ia afferents), Static change - slow stretch, mediated by NUCLEAR CHAIN (group II afferents).

59

Where is the micturition center located?

Pons

60

Functional unit of the cerebellum

Purkinje and Deep Nuclear Cell

61

Functional unit of the cerebellum for planning and initiation of movement

Cerebrocerebellum

62

Circuit in the basal ganglia that helps plan learned, complex movements

Putamen Circuit

63

Lesions of the globus pallidus resulting to snake like or writhing movements

Athetosis

64

Where is the lesion in hemiballismus?

Subthalamic nucleus of Luys

65

Where is the lesion in chorea?

Corpus striatum

66

Autosomal genetic disorder caused by CAG trinucleotide repeats

Huntington's Disease - depletion of GABA and acetylcholine

67

Regulation of body temperature is mediated by the ?

Hypothalamus

68

Majority of heat loss happens through?

Radiation (60%), evaporation (22%)

69

Most important effect of decreased oxygenation at high altitude

Decreased mental proficiency

70

Changes in natural acclimitization

Increase chest size, decrease body mass, larger hearts, better oxygen delivery

71

Caused by sudden ascent during diving

Decompression sickness - nitrogen bubble blocks blood vessels

72

Part of the kidney that is vascular

Cortex

73

True or false: proteinuria is always abnormal

TRUE

74

What is the capacity of the urinary bladder?

500-600mL

75

What muscle empties the bladder

Detrusor muscle

76

What innervates the external urethral sphincter?

Pudendal nerve

77

What does the capillary epithelium of the nephron secrete?

Nitric oxide, endothelin 1

78

Normal GFR?

180L/ day

79

What happens to your GFR if you constrict your efferent arteriole?

Increase

80

What happens your GFR if you constrict your afferent arteriole

Decrease

81

True or false: glucocorticoids increases GFR

False - glucocorticoids increase both GFR and RBF

82

True or false: histamine increases GFR

False - histamine increases RBF only

83

What 3 hormones decrease GFR?

Norepinephrine, epinephrine and endothelin

84

Massive sympathetic stimulation that results in massive vasoconstriction of the kidneys?

CNS ischemic response

85

Part of the glomerulus that senses changes in Na

Macula densa

86

Effect of Adenosine and Nitric oxide on the afferent arteriole

Adenosine - vasoconstricts, nitric oxide - vasodilates

87

Workhorse of the nephron, where most reabsorption and secretion occurs

Proximal Tubule

88

Epithelial lining of proximal tubule

Low columnar with extensive brush border

89

What segment of the Loop of Henle is permeable to water

Descending limb

90

What is the role of Principal cells on the distal tubule?

Secrete K, absorb sodium and water

91

Site for regulation of final urine volume and concentration

Medullary collecting tubules and collecting ducts

92

Gold standard to diagnose left sided heart failure

BNP

93

Hormone secreted by the DT and CD that acts in a manner similar to ANP

Urodilatin

94

Used to estimate GFR

Clearance of Inulin and Creatinine

95

Used to estimate Renal Plasma Flow, Renal Blood Flow

Clearance of Para-Amino Hippuric Acid (PAH)

96

Threshold of glucose in the renal system

200mg/100mL. Maximum of 376mg/100mL.

97

True or false: Sodium is actively transported in all parts of the renal tubule

False - sodium is actively transported in all parts of the renal tubule except the descending limb of the Loop of Henle

98

Factors that shift Potassium into the cells

Insulin, Aldosterone, B adrenergic stimulation, Alkalosis

99

Normal serum Potassium level

4.2 mEq/L

100

Calcium reabsorption in the kidneys is controlled by?

Vitamin D and PTH

101

Phosphate throwing hormone

PTH - decrease phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubule

102

65% of magnesium is reabsorbed where?

Loop of Henle

103

Countercurrent multipliers that create graded osmolarity

Loops of Henle

104

Countercurrent exchangers that preserve and maintain osmolarity (prevents dissipation of gradient)

Vasa recta

105

This hormone stimulates Urea receptors

ADH

106

Where is the thirst center?

Anteroventral wall of 3rd ventricle and preoptic nuclei

107

What pH is compatible with life?

pH = 6.8 - 8

108

Abnormality which increases RR will cause:

Reapiratory alkalosis

109

In metabolic acidosis, what is the normal serum anion gap?

12 mEq/L, + or - 4

110

Protein responsible for the biconcave shape of RBCs

Spectrin

111

Where is erythropoietin produced?

90% in the interstitial cells of peritubular capillaries (kidneys), 10% in the liver

112

Why is EPO produced and what is its effect?

Produced in response to decreased oxygenation, stimulates proerythroblast production

113

What is the active form of iron?

Ferrous - Fe 2+

114

Main storage center of iron

Ferritin, found in liver

115

Where is Transferrin produced and secreted?

Produced in liver, secreted into the bile and duodenum

116

Where do you see hemosiderin laden macrophages?

Heart failure cells - left heart failure

117

Graveyard of RBCs

Spleen