Flashcards in physioj Deck (117):
In the cell cycle, when does a new nuclear membrane develop?
In the cell cycle, when do spindle fibers form?
What do you call division of the cytoplasm into two cells?
Ca that demonstrates a nucleus with no nucleolus
Papillary thyroid Ca - Orphan Annie
Smooth ER is involved mostly in detoxication and synthesis of lipids. Where is it commonly found?
"Protein factory" of the cell that is found in the liver, neurons, pancreas and thyroid
Rough ER in the neurons
What wear and tear pigment accumulates in the lysosome?
A microtubule motor protein causing transport from the center of the cell to the periphery
A microtubule motor protein causing transport from the periphery of the cell to the center
Disease with dynein missing in cilia and flagella
What is the functional unit of a gap junction
Disc shaped junctional complex that allows firm intercellular adhesions
What are the 3 components of a glycocalyx?
Glycoprotein, Glycolipids, Proteoglycans
Which disease involves a mutation in a gene of Chromosome 7 that encodes for an ABC transporter called CFTR
Mediate secretion of hormones, neurotransmitters from intracellular vesicles during exocytosis
Which effective osmole is used in the treatment of brain edema?
What are the 2 important functions of the Na-K pump?
Maintains electrical potential across the membrane and prevents cellular swelling
What is the functional subunit of the Na-K-ATPase pump that is inhibited by cardiac glycosides?
What is the earliest sign of ASA toxicity?
What cells cause myelination in your CNS? PNS?
CNS - oligodendrocytes. PNS - Schwann cells.
What kind of conduction happens in your nodes of ranvier?
Saltatory or jumping
Enzyme that degrades Ach to acetate and choline
Where is dopamine found?
Substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area
Where is the "happy hormone" secreted?
Serotonin - median raphe of the brainstem
The number 1 inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
What are the functions of GABA?
GABA - A is chloride influx, GABA - B is potassium efflux
What is the number 1 excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?
Which neurotransmitter is deficient in Alzheimer's Disease?
Site of decussation of the corticospinal tract
What connects your 2 cerebral hemispheres?
Loss of accommodation due to paralysis of ciliary muscle
What produces the aqueous humor and where does it exit?
Produces by ciliary body and exits into the canal of schlemm
What is the difference between rods and cones in the eye?
Rods - nighttime vision, Cones - daytime vision
Depression in macula lutea with the highest cone density
Deterioration of pigment epithelium in the eye
Night blindness due to Vit A deficiency
Genetic defect in Type I procollagen, sclera appears blue
Hexosaminidase A deficiency where patients have a characteristic macular "cherry red spot" appearance
Tay - Sach's Disease
Define occupational hearing loss
More than 10yrs exposure to daily 8 hour sound levels of >85dB
Part of the outer ear that functions to amplify and localize sound
What is the content of the Endolymph? Perilymph?
Endolymph - potassium, Perilymph - sodium.
True or false: low frequency sounds are more damaging to the Organ of Corti
Fibers used by the sense of smell
Unmyelinated C fibers
Components of a fast twitch muscle
Type II, fast, large, more active, high myosin ATPase
Components of unitary smooth muscles
Muscle units act together as one, (+) gap junctions, (+) spike and plateau potentials, may exhibit spontaneous contractions, found in intestines/bile ducts/ureters
Plasma membrane that surrounds the muscle fiber
Functional unit of the muscle with thick and thin filaments
Largest protein in the body, tethers myosin to Z lines
Stabilizes plasmalemma and prevents contraction induced rupture
Effect that states each contraction occurs after complete relaxation
Staircase (Treppe) Effect
Components of an isometric contraction
Length is held constant, no muscle shortening or lengthening
True or false: muscle fatigue occurs earlier in slow twitch fibers
Type of calcium channels in the cardiac muscle
Voltage gated L type slow calcium channel
Rope like structures of the cytoskeleton that may act as tumor markers
Spinal cord neuron that facilitates lateral inhibition
True or false: muscle spindle detects length while golgi tendon organ detects tension
Components of dynamic change and static change in a muscle spindle
Dynamic change - sudden stretch, mediated by NUCLEAR BAG (group Ia afferents), Static change - slow stretch, mediated by NUCLEAR CHAIN (group II afferents).
Where is the micturition center located?
Functional unit of the cerebellum
Purkinje and Deep Nuclear Cell
Functional unit of the cerebellum for planning and initiation of movement
Circuit in the basal ganglia that helps plan learned, complex movements
Lesions of the globus pallidus resulting to snake like or writhing movements
Where is the lesion in hemiballismus?
Subthalamic nucleus of Luys
Where is the lesion in chorea?
Autosomal genetic disorder caused by CAG trinucleotide repeats
Huntington's Disease - depletion of GABA and acetylcholine
Regulation of body temperature is mediated by the ?
Majority of heat loss happens through?
Radiation (60%), evaporation (22%)
Most important effect of decreased oxygenation at high altitude
Decreased mental proficiency
Changes in natural acclimitization
Increase chest size, decrease body mass, larger hearts, better oxygen delivery
Caused by sudden ascent during diving
Decompression sickness - nitrogen bubble blocks blood vessels
Part of the kidney that is vascular
True or false: proteinuria is always abnormal
What is the capacity of the urinary bladder?
What muscle empties the bladder
What innervates the external urethral sphincter?
What does the capillary epithelium of the nephron secrete?
Nitric oxide, endothelin 1
What happens to your GFR if you constrict your efferent arteriole?
What happens your GFR if you constrict your afferent arteriole
True or false: glucocorticoids increases GFR
False - glucocorticoids increase both GFR and RBF
True or false: histamine increases GFR
False - histamine increases RBF only
What 3 hormones decrease GFR?
Norepinephrine, epinephrine and endothelin
Massive sympathetic stimulation that results in massive vasoconstriction of the kidneys?
CNS ischemic response
Part of the glomerulus that senses changes in Na
Effect of Adenosine and Nitric oxide on the afferent arteriole
Adenosine - vasoconstricts, nitric oxide - vasodilates
Workhorse of the nephron, where most reabsorption and secretion occurs
Epithelial lining of proximal tubule
Low columnar with extensive brush border
What segment of the Loop of Henle is permeable to water
What is the role of Principal cells on the distal tubule?
Secrete K, absorb sodium and water
Site for regulation of final urine volume and concentration
Medullary collecting tubules and collecting ducts
Gold standard to diagnose left sided heart failure
Hormone secreted by the DT and CD that acts in a manner similar to ANP
Used to estimate GFR
Clearance of Inulin and Creatinine
Used to estimate Renal Plasma Flow, Renal Blood Flow
Clearance of Para-Amino Hippuric Acid (PAH)
Threshold of glucose in the renal system
200mg/100mL. Maximum of 376mg/100mL.
True or false: Sodium is actively transported in all parts of the renal tubule
False - sodium is actively transported in all parts of the renal tubule except the descending limb of the Loop of Henle
Factors that shift Potassium into the cells
Insulin, Aldosterone, B adrenergic stimulation, Alkalosis
Normal serum Potassium level
Calcium reabsorption in the kidneys is controlled by?
Vitamin D and PTH
Phosphate throwing hormone
PTH - decrease phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubule
65% of magnesium is reabsorbed where?
Loop of Henle
Countercurrent multipliers that create graded osmolarity
Loops of Henle
Countercurrent exchangers that preserve and maintain osmolarity (prevents dissipation of gradient)
This hormone stimulates Urea receptors
Where is the thirst center?
Anteroventral wall of 3rd ventricle and preoptic nuclei
What pH is compatible with life?
pH = 6.8 - 8
Abnormality which increases RR will cause:
In metabolic acidosis, what is the normal serum anion gap?
12 mEq/L, + or - 4
Protein responsible for the biconcave shape of RBCs
Where is erythropoietin produced?
90% in the interstitial cells of peritubular capillaries (kidneys), 10% in the liver
Why is EPO produced and what is its effect?
Produced in response to decreased oxygenation, stimulates proerythroblast production
What is the active form of iron?
Ferrous - Fe 2+
Main storage center of iron
Ferritin, found in liver
Where is Transferrin produced and secreted?
Produced in liver, secreted into the bile and duodenum
Where do you see hemosiderin laden macrophages?
Heart failure cells - left heart failure