Analgesics Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Final Exam > Analgesics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Analgesics Deck (69):
1

postaglandins

sensitize neurons to painful stimuli

2

endorphins

(endogenous morphine)
blocks painful stimuli
stimulate pleasure centers in the brain

3

GABA

calms down nerves- (but unsure as to why it calms them down. reduces neuronal hyper excitability related to epilepsy and neuropathic pain)

4

Types of nociceptive pain

Somatic (skin bone joint muscle or connective tissue
Visceral pain- internal organs

5

___ often results in a phenomenon known as "referred pain"

visceral pain which is nociceptive pain

6

role of NSAIDS

reduces inflammation
reduces pain

7

neuropathic pain

comes from the nerves itself

8

"burning, shooting, stinging pain"

neuropathic pain

9

which type of pain does not involve stimuli

neuropathic pain

10

diseases invoving neuropathic pain

diabetic neuropathy
postherpetic neuralgia

11

___ pain is the result of neurophysiological problems

neuropathic pain

12

___ pain is phamton limb pain

neuropathic

13

aka learned pain

phantom limb pain

14

____ used for minor aches and pains

pain relief topical agents

15

What type of local anesthetic causes vasoconstriction and less bleeding

lidocaine w/ epinephrine

16

cant use lidocaine with epi where

fingers toes nose penis

17

treats mild to moderate severe pain

NSAIDS

18

Examples of NSAIDS

ibuprofen
naproxen
meloxicam
asprin
toradol
celebrex
diplofenac- topically

19

ibuprofen works for

4-6 hours

20

naproxen works for

12 hours

21

meloxicam works for

24 hours

22

celebrex works for

24 hours

23

Asprin precaution

avoid use in children can cause reye's syndrome

24

pain number for mild to moderate pain is anything between

1-4

25

NSAIDS MOA

inhibits formation of prostaglandins
and thromboxanes (cause inflammation)

26

how are NSAIDS excreted?

renally.

27

Precations for NSAIDS

use with caution in elderly (they have decreased kidney function)
Worsens HF

28

Do not prescribe NSAIDS to patients with which disorders

stomach ulcers (can cause this)
stomach ache (can cause a stomach ache)
HF (worsens- causes fluid overload)

29

Which NSAID has Less stomach irritation

Celebrex
meloxicam

30

IV NSAID

Toradol

31

Topically applied NSAID

Diclofenac

32

kidney stones (renal colic) can be treated w/ works well with

Torodol

33

kidney infection is MORE likely if i combine an NSAID w/

ACE
ARB
diuretic

34

NSAIDS can reduce effects of

hypertensives
(Worsens Hypertension)

35

What areas in older adults is toxicity seen with NSAIDS

GI tract
kidneys

36

Acetaminophen used for
MOA

mild to moderate pain but NOT to treat inflammation
inhibits prostaglandins but not thromboxanes

37

has antipyretic properties

NSAIDs tylenol

38

GI problems, caused by NSAIDS or tylenol

NSAIDS

39

max dose of acetaminophen

4g/day
3kg/lifetime

40

motrin max dose

3200 mg/day

41

Antidote for acetaminophen

mucomyst IV
charcoal

42

Opiods all have short durations (how long) except for

4 hours
methadone

43

when first taking methadone the duration of action is __ hrs, after repeated doses the duration is ___

4 hours, 24 hours

44

provides a safe opioid as a substitute for heroin

methadone

45

___ is the weakest opioid

tramadol

46

middle strength of opioids

hydrocodone
codeine

47

Used for moderate to severe neuropathic or nociceptive pain

opioids

48

If you are allergic to opioids which opioids can you take?

methadone, fentanyl, meperidine
(since structure is dissimilar)

49

effects of opioids on pupils/eyes

constricts pupils

50

epidural route

into spine

51

intrathecal route

into meanings of spinal cord

52

contraindications of opioids

liver disease
kidney disease
premature infants - avoid
increased intracranial pressure
prostatic hypertrophy

53

transdermal opioids which for short term PCA?

Ionsys

54

when do we look for fentanyl patches

when assessing patient
AMS
respiratory depression
applying another patch

55

if someone has AMS what else can you do for them?******** she repeats this one twice

check:
ABC's
blood glucose
EtOh
CT scan of head (brain bleed)
brain injury
give them ******Narcand****

56

post hemetic neuralgia aka
causes what type of pain

shingles
neuropathic pain

57

Dirty Drug"

meperidine
b/c metabolizes inot things that are harmful to patients

58

meperidine used for

restricted to patients with pancreatic diseases

59

used for severe pain, example cancer

methadone

60

very difficult to resusitate patient in OD of ____

methadone

61

____ opiod with least risk of respiratory depression

tramadol

62

opioid antidote

narcane
naloxone/enzio- home antidote

63

how must naloxone be taken to block euphoria

crushed
snorted
injected

64

When naloxone is taken orally will it deter abuse

no

65

Diseases that would cause bone pain

pagets dx- (malformation of the bone caused by osteoarthiris)

bone cancer
osteoarthritis

66

treatment for bone pain

bisphosphonates- used to treat osteroprosis
steriods
(sometimes need opioids)

67

lyrica and gabapentrin is used for which dx

diabetic peripheral neuropathy
fibromyalgia
postherpatic neuralgia
epilepsy

68

lyrica function

calm nerves down

69

lyrica SE

diziness
headache
drowsiness
more youtake more SE u experience