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Flashcards in Anatomical Terminology Deck (52):
1

The anatomical position

All descriptions of the human body are based on assumption that the person is standing erect with the arms by their side and with the face and the palms of the hands facing forward.

2

The median or midsaggital plane

This is a vertical plane passing through the center of the body dividing it into equal right and left halves.

3

Coronal, frontal or ventral plane.

A plane going through the center of the body at right angles to the median or midsaggital plane that divides the body into two equal halves - front and back.

4

Horizontal or transverse plane

The horizontal planes that cross the body at right angles to the coronal and saggital planes and are parallel to the floorline.

5

Medial

Any structure said to be medial to another is nearer the midline.

6

Lateral

Any structure that is said to be lateral to another is further away from the midline or at the side of the body.

7

Proximal

Toward an attached base. The thigh is proximal to the foot.

8

Anterior or Ventral

This indicates that the structure being described is nearer the front of the body.

9

Posterior or Dorsal

This indicates taht the structure being described is nearer the back of the body.

10

Superior

Above, or at a higher level (in the human body - toward the head.)

11

Inferior

Below, or at a lower level - away from the head.

12

Cranial or Cephallic

Toward the head.

13

Caudal

Towards the tail end of the long axis of the body, hte coccyx. The hips are caudal to the waist.

14

Superficial

Near the surface.

15

Deep

Below the surface.

16

Articulation

Where two or more bones meet to form a joint. Another term for a joint.

17

Articulating surface.

The ends of the bones that meet and form the joint.

18

Border

An edge or boundary separating surfaces within a bone.

19

Trochanter

A large rough projection for the attachment of muscles, ligaments, or tendons.

20

Tuberosity

A smaller rough projection with the same function as a trochanter.

21

Tubercle

A small, rounded projection.

22

Foramen

A rounded passageway through a bone for nerves and blood vessels.

23

Fossa

A shallow depression

24

Head

The expanded articular end of an epiphysis sometimes separated from the shaft by a narrower neck.

25

Condyle

A smooth rounded or articular process

26

Trochlea

A smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley.

27

Facet

A small, flat articular surface that acts as part of a joint; facets are seen in the vertebrae in the subtalar joint of the ankle and of course the patella.

28

Ramus

An extension of a bone making an angle to the rest of the structure.

29

Crest

A prominent ridge.

30

Line

A low ridge.

31

Spine

A pointed process

32

Process

Any projection or bump which gives attachment for muscles and ligaments - examples include the styloid and mastoid processes on the skull, and the ulnar styloid at the wrist.

33

Sulcus

A narrow groove.

34

Foramen

A rounded passageway for blood vessels and or nerves

35

Fissure

An elongated cleft

36

Meatus

A canal leading through the substance of a bone.

37

Sinus or Antrum

A chamber within a bone, normally filled with air.

38

Diaphysis

The thick, compact shaft of a long bone providing strong support.

39

Epiphysis

The bulbous growth end of a long bone, usually wider than the shaft and entirely cartilaginous in the embryo. During growth the epiphyses are separated from the main portion of bone by cartilage known as the epiphyseal plate.

40

Metaphysis

The wider portion of long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. This portion of bone represents the most recently formed bone during the growth process. When fully developed it is continuous with the epiphysis.

41

Flexion

Can be described as a movement in the anterior-posterior plane that reduces the angle between the articulating elements. When you bring your head to your chest.

42

Extension

Occurs in the same plane but increases the angle between articulating elements. When you life your head form your chest, extension occurs.

43

Abduction

This describes a movement away from the midline.

44

Adduction

This describes a movement toward the midline in the frontal plane.

45

Rotation

A movement about the long axis of a bone. If the anterior aspect rotates inward you have medial rotation, if it rotates outward you have lateral rotation.

46

Pronation

This describes the movement of turning the palm downward.

47

Supination

Describes the movement of turning the palm upward - as in the anatomical position.

48

Circumduction

Combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction.

49

Inversion

Describes the motion of turning the sole of the foot inward.

50

Eversion

This is the opposite to inversion and describes the motion of turning the sole of the foot outward.

51

Dorsiflexion

Describes the action of the elevation of the superior surface of the foot.

52

Plantar Flexion

Describes the depression of the front downward at the ankle.