Bone and Connective Tissue Focused Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bone and Connective Tissue Focused Deck (11):
1

What substance makes up 2/3 of the bone weight?

Calcium phosphate crystals

2

What is the other 1/3 made up of?

Collagen fibres, other calcium salts and cells

3

Name four cells found in the cortical bone tissue.

Osteocytes
Osteoblasts
Osteoclasts
Osteoprogenitors

4

What are the two types of bone and what are their differences?

Cortical bone - hard outer layer consisting of cylindrical structures called osteons.
Cancellous bone - found where lightness and strength are needed - expanded ends of long bones. It forms struts called trabeculae which make up the inner support structure.

5

What is the name of the thick membrane that surrounds bone?

Periosteum

6

Name the two major forms of ossification and where they occur.

Intramembranous Ossification - Usually in the deep layers of the dermis. Roofing bones of the skull, the mandible and clavicle or dermal bones.

Endochondral Ossification - Found in the long bones and limbs.

7

What kind of bone growth increases the diameter of the bone?

Appositional bone growth - when poriosteal cells convert into osteoblasts and contribute to the growth of the matrix.

8

What is the function of the epiphyseal plates found at the ends of growing bones?

Chondrocytes closest to the epiphysis divide and thicken the plate forcing the epiphyses further away from the shaft.

9

Name 3 types of cartilage and name their locations.

Hyaline cartilage - most common. Found between the tips of the ribs and the bones of the sternum.
Elastic Cartilage - Pinna of the external ear, tip of the nose and the epiglottis
Fibrocartilage - intervertebral discs, the menisci of the knee joint, between the pubic bones of the pelvis

10

Is cartilage avascular?

Yes

11

How do tendons and ligaments differ?

Tendons attach muscles to bones
Cartilage attaches bones to bones