Flashcards in Glossary of Terms Deck (233):
The rate at which velocity changes in either magnitude or direction.
A short limbed, disproportionate dwarfism. An inherited disorder causing short limbs and disproportionate dwarfism.
A short limbed, disproportionate dwarfism. An inherited disorder causing short limbs and disproportionate dwarfism.
Activities of Daily Living
The proper positions when standing, sitting, lying in bed, and so on.
Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
A lateral spinal curvature that appears before the onset of puberty and before skeletal maturity.
The paired fibrous bands that connect the superolateral aspect of the odontoid process of C2 to the medial sides of the occipital condyles.
Bone or tissue from a human donor.
Sterile bone derived from another human which is used for bone grafting procedures.
A substance (metal) composed of more than one metal mixed together by fusion, electrolytic deposition or other process.
This describes a person standing erect, with the feet together and the arms by the sides of the body, with the palms forward.
A progressive, chronic, inflammatory disease of the spine, sacroiliac joints and the paravertebral soft tissues.
The outer, fibrous, ring-like portion of an intervertebral disc.
Situated or occurring in front of and to the side.
The front portion of the body often used to indicate the position of one structure relative to another.
The anterior part of the spine composed of vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and anterior longitudinal ligament.
The most rotated vertebra in a curve the most deviated vertebra from the remove vertical axis.
Inflammation of a joint.
The fusion of bones across a joint space thereby limiting or eliminating movement. It may occur spontaneously or as a result of surgical procedure.
Any disease or disorder involving a joint.
The surgical remodelling of a diseased or damaged joint.
Pertaining to a joint.
Lack of similarity or correspondence of the limb or parts of the limbs.
A lack of co-ordination of muscular action due to disease of the central nervous system.
Bone originating from the same individual; i.e. an individual's own bone.
Bone transplanted from one part to another part of the body in the same individual.
Axis of Motion
The axis of motion is perpendicular to the plane in which the joint motion occurs. The closer the axis of motion is to the body plane, the less movement there is in that body plane.
Describing an abnormal growth that will neither spread nor recur after removal.
Divided into two parts.
A characteristic of some materials that when they are inserted into the body do not produce a significant rejection or immune response.
The breakdown of organic materials into simple chemicals commonly found in the body.
The application of mechanical laws to the living systems, with specific regard to normal locomotion and includes the mechanical laws governing the structure, function, and position of the human body.
A small piece of tissue removed from the body for microscopic analysis.
A congenital defect in which two or more vertebral bodies are fused without an intervening disc.
For the convenience of anatomists and practitioners the human body is conveniently divided into sections or reference planes.
The hard tissue that provides structural support to the body. It is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen. Individual bones may be classes as long, short, or flat.
Radiologic study where patient is injected with radioactive tracer (technetium) that is absorbed by the skeleton. Increased activity is seen in arthritis, cancers and infection.
One of the substances extracted from bone, such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMP)
Bone which is harvested from one location in an individual and placed in another individual (allograft bone) or in a different location in the same individual (autogenous bone).
The tissue contained within the internal cavities of the bones. A major function of this tissue is to produce red blood cells.
The spongy or honeycomb structure of some bone tissue typically found at the ends of long bones.
A malignant growth composed of abnormally multiplying surface tissues.
The hard, thin layer of white glossy tissue that covers the end of bone at a joint.
Computerized Axial Tomography, is a sophisticated X-ray machine combined with a computer to create a detailed picture of the body's tissues and structures.
The spinal cord ends at the upper end of the lumbar region. From there down, the spinal canal is filled only with nerve roots. To the early anatomists, this tangle of nerves looked like the tail of a hose, cauda equina or horse's tail.
Towards the tail or inferior point, opposite of cephalad.
Central Nervous System
The brain, spinal cord and spinal nerves.
Center of Gravity
The center of gravity (C of G) represents the center of concentration of body mass.
The body of a vertebra.
In a direction towards the head.
A neurological disorder with spacticity and inco-ordination, caused by brain damage in and around the time of birth.
The neck region of the spine containing the first seven vertebrae.
A treatment of an intervertebral disc that consists of an injection of chymopapain, a drug that dissolves part of the disc.
A mature cartilage cell that occupies a lacuna within the extracellular matrix.
Limping due to muscle cramp or pain associated with activity or exertion.
A term that is used in referring to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, a mixture of metals used in many surgical implants.
Cobb Angle Measurement
Measurement of spinal deformity.
A fiberous protein which is a major constituent of connective tissue. Such as skein, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones.
A fracture in which a bone is broken into more than two pieces. Often internal or external fixation devices are used to maintain proper alignment of the fragments.
A curve, which can be structural, above or below a major curve that tends to maintain normal body alignment.
The act of pressing together.
Present at and existing from the time of birth.
The distal termination of the spinal cord proper in an adult.
Refers to a sction that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
The dense bone that forms the outer surface of bone.
Cerebro spinal fluid
Degenerative disc disease
Removal of infected or dead tissue.
Bone tissue which has been depleted of its minerals; e.g. calcium and phosphorous.
Area of skin supplied by one spinal segment.
The tough, elastic structure that is between teh bodies of spinal vertebrae.
The loss of structural and functional integrity of the disc.
Surgical removal of part or all of an intervertebral disc.
Disruption to the normal integrity of the intervertebral disc, often used interchangeably with disc prolapse, disc bulge, slipped disc etc.
Infection of the disc space.
Situated away from the center of the body.
Excessive space between fracture fragments or vertebral segments due.
The introduction of radio-opaque fluid into the nucleus pulposus for purposes of identifying disc configuration. The resulting studies are known as discograms.
An area in your pelvic bone where the bone for the bone graft was obtained.
Relative to or situated on the posterior of back surface, opposite of ventral.
A chromosomal abnormality. Skeletal abnormalities result from a lagmentous laxity and commonly include atlanto-axial instability, recurrent patella dislocation, pes planus ets.
Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
A progressive muscular dystrophy inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait.
The thickest outermost covering of teh spinal cord and spinal nerves. Also lines the inside of the skull.
An abnormality or alteration of tissue structure.
A defective fusion spinal dysraphism implies the failure of formation of midline spinal elements posteriorly. Any failure of closure of the primary neural tube.
A disorder or organ or tissue, usually muscle, due to impaired nourishment of the affected part. See muscular dystrophy.
Pain with urination.
i. The most cephalad vertebra of a curve, whose superior surface tilts maximally toward the concavity of the curve.
ii. The most caudad vertebra whose inferior surface tilts maximally toward the concavity of the curve.
Arising within or derived from the body.
Situated outside the thin, tough dural membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
An accumulation of purulent fluid and or pus around the covering of the spinal cord and nerve roots.
The inflammation of an epiphysis or the cartilage joining the epiphysis to the bone shaft.
Muscles of the spine that lie posteriorly. These are commonly known as the "anti-gravity" muscles.
The account of how the workplace relates to the human and its function.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
A laboratory test measuring the rate at which red blood cells settle in a test tube.
Removal by cutting away material.
Originating outside of the body.
Extruded Intervertebral Disc
The nucleus pulposus breaks through the annulus fibrosus wall, but remains within the disc.
That which lies external to the joint.
That which lies external to nerual tissue.
A posterior structure of a vertebra which articulates with a facet of an adjacent vertebra. See Zygapophyseal joint.
Excision of a facet.
An arrangement of nerve and muscle fibres resembling a cluster or bundle of rods.
A fracture that occurs in bone or in other materials. Including metal, as a result of repeated stress as opposed to a single injury.
The replacement of normal tissue with scar tissue.
The tapered, terminal end of the spinal cord.
The action of bending across a joint so that the two adjacent sections approach each other. A motion away from a starting point.
The opening at the base of the anterior, inferior part of the occipital bone that lies between the cranial cavity and the spinal cord. The opening through which the spinal ford passes to exit the cranium.
This is a vector quantity, which means that it has both magnitude and direction.
A disruption of the normal continuity of bone.
(syn. Coronal Plane) This is a flat vertical plane passing through the body from side to side, dividing it into front half and back half.
Union or healing of bone (see arthrodesis).
A manner or style of walking. A normal gait is smooth, co-ordinated and rhythmic.
A sharply angular kyphos.
Apparatus for measuring range of motion at a joint.
A fracture of the axis, usually through the pars interarticularis just posterior to the pedicles, without fracturing the odontoid process.
A congential anomaly of the spine caused by incomplete development of one side of the vertebra
Extrusion of part of the nucleus pulposus material through a defect in the annulus fibrosus.
The lattice-like structure of bone composed of calcium and phosphorous crystals which deposits on collagen to provide the rigid structure of bone.
An excessive amount of, more than normal
A kyphosis of greater than normal range.
A lordosis of greater than normal range.
An increase in size or volume of a part or an organ, produced by an increase in size of the existing cells, not by an increase in the number of cells.
Not enough of, less than normal
Occurring without known cause self-originated
A condition or disease with no known cause.
A part of the pelvic bone that is above the hip joint and from which autogenous bone grafts are frequently obtained.
The large, prominent portion of the pelvic bone at the belt line of the body.
Limitation of motion or fixation of a body part usually to promote healing.
This is a descriptive term used to explain the resistance offered by a body to attempt to set it in motion, or to stop it if it is already moving.
A scoliosis which develops during the first three years of life.
Muscles lying between ribs and are often injured by rotary stress of thorax.
A cartilaginous joint between the vertebral bodies, providing extremely efficient shock absorption.
Describing biological phenomena that are made to occur outside the living body traditionally in a test tube. In vitro is Latin for glass.
Within a living body. In vivo is latin for life.
Situated below or directed downward.
A deficient flow of blood to a part of the body.
The junction or articulation of two or more bones that permits varying degrees of motion between the bones.
A scoliotic deformity developing between the ages of three and seven years.
This describes motion but without reference to the forces involved.
A congenitial malformation of the cervical spine characterized by the fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae.
A backward curving of the spine.
An anatomical portion of a vertebra. For each vertebra, two lamina connect the pedicles to the spinous process as part of the neural arch.
An operation for removal of part or all of the lamina of a vertebra.
Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
Situated away from the midline of the body.
A band of flexible, fibrous non-elastic tissue which connects bone to bone.
Structural support through grafts and/or implants.
A forward curving of the spine.
The lower part of the spine between the thoracic region and the sacrum
A procedure for investigation or treating nervous system diseases by inserting a needle between the vertebrae at the base of the spine to tap cerebrospinal fluid.
A congenital anomaly of the lumbao-sacral junction. The first segment of the sacrum is fully or partially separated from remainder of the sacrum.
A hereditary disorder of connective tissue that is characterized by abnormal elongation of the bones and often by ocular and circulatory defects, also called Marfan syndrome.
The amount of matter contained within a body.
Situated closer to the midline of the body.
Designating an abnormal growth that tends to spread (metastasize).
Transmission of disease from an original site to one or more sites elsewhere in the body (as in tuberculosis or cancer).
This is the perpendicular distance between the force and the fulcrum point.
The momentum of an object is caculated by multiplying its velocity by its mass.
Magnetic resonance imaging, a non invasive radiological test providing excellent images of soft tissue and bone.
An hereditary disorder, characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of muscle.
The introduction of a radio-opaque substance into the subarachnoid space to view the spinal cord.
The portion of the spinal verve in close proximity to its origin from the spinal cord.
The bony arch of the posterior aspect of a vertebra that surrounds the spinal cord, also referred to as the vertebral arch.
Arising from any part of the nervous system.
Relating to a large group of disorders in which there is an affection or loss of function of muscles and peripheral nerves.
Relating to the nervous system.
Relating to both nervous and vascular elements.
This is the Systeme Internationale (SI) unit for measuring force.
Failure of the fragments of a fractured bone to heal or to obtain bony fusion following an arthrodesis.
The simi-gelatinous tissue in the center of an intervertebral disc.
The process of forming bone in the body.
A disorder in which bone is weakened due to mineral loss.
Outgrowth of bone, usually in reaction to pathological processes within, or at, a joint.
The study of disease states
The part of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra. It connects the lamina with the vertebral body.
Deviation of the pelvis from the horizontal in the frontal plane.
A fibrous membrane that covers the surface of bones.
The science of functioning of living organisms, and of their component systems or parts.
Located behind a structure, such as relating to the back side of the human body.
The falling down or slipping out of place of an organ or part.
Nearest the center of the body.
A form of non-union in which there is the formation of a false joint.
Range of Motion
This refers to the available movement provided by a joint.
The surgical removal of part of a structure, such as bone.
The removal of bone tissue by normal physiological process or as part of a pathological process such as an infection.
Posterior slippage of one vertebra on another.
Surgical transection of a nerve root.
The prominence of the ribs on the convexity of a spinal curvature, usually due to vertebral rotation best exhibited on forward bending.
The movement of one vertebra to another about its normal or abnormal coronal axis.
See Herniated Disc.
The joint formed between the medial surface of the ilium and the lateral aspect of the upper sacral vertebrae.
A part of the spine that is also part of the pelvis.
A flat vertical plane passing through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left half.
A malignant tumor arising from diseased connective tissue.
Adolescent disorder characterized by radiological findings of vertebral wedging.
Described as a fractured end plates, often large enough to allow the nucleus pulposus to extrude into the vertebral body.
Historical depiction, via a body map, indicating regions of the body that are supplied by a spinal nerve.
A state of infection of tissue due to disease-producing bacteria or toxins.
A term describing the complete detachment of a portion of prolapsed nucleus pulposus, with migration, often into the spinal canal.
The rigid framework of bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports the soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for muscles.
Spina Bifida Occulta
Non-union of the laminae, most commonly L5, posteriorly behind the cauda equina.
The bony channel that is formed by the intervertebral foramen of the vertebrae and in which contains the spinal cord and nerve roots.
The longitudinal cord of nerve tissue that is enclosed in the spinal canal.
A surgical procedure to permanently join bone by interconnecting tow or more vertebrae in order to prevent motion. See Arthrodesis.
Reduction in diameter of the spinal canal due to new bone formation which may result in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
The flexible bone column extending from the base of the skull to the tailbone.
The portion of the vertebrae that protrudes posteriorly from the spinal column.
Inflammation of the vertebrae.
Displacement of one vertebrae over another with fracture of a posterior portion of the vertebra.
Degenerative processes which affect the intervertebral disc.
Iron-based metal containing chromium that is highly resistant to stain, rust, and corrosion.
Free from living organisms
The method used to render a material free from living organisms. Usual methods include steam under pressure, gas, and ionizing radiation.
An incomplete dislocation of a joint. Gradual displacement or partial dislocation produced within a joint.
Situated above or directed upward toward the head of an individual.
Technetium Bone Scan
A sensitive radiological investigation, utilizing a radio-isotope, used in the detection of stress fractures, as well as other bony pathology.
The fiberous band of tissue that connects muscle to bone.
The chest level region of the spine that is located between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae.
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Compression of the neurovascular bundle, comprising the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery.
A metallic element used to make surgical implants.
The study of toxic or harmful effects of substances on the body.
Vertebral body displacement - can describe lateral anterior or posterior displacement.
Refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
This has a direction and a magnitude e.g. a force is a vector.
This is the rate at which a moving object changes position.
One of 33 bones of the spinal column.
The superior and inferior plates of cortical bone of the vertebral body adjacent to the intervertebral disc.
A graft derived from one species for use in another species.