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Flashcards in Glossary of Terms Deck (233):
1

Acceleration

The rate at which velocity changes in either magnitude or direction.

2

Achondraplasia

A short limbed, disproportionate dwarfism. An inherited disorder causing short limbs and disproportionate dwarfism.

3

Achondroplastic Dwarfism

A short limbed, disproportionate dwarfism. An inherited disorder causing short limbs and disproportionate dwarfism.

4

Activities of Daily Living

The proper positions when standing, sitting, lying in bed, and so on.

5

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

A lateral spinal curvature that appears before the onset of puberty and before skeletal maturity.

6

Alar Ligaments

The paired fibrous bands that connect the superolateral aspect of the odontoid process of C2 to the medial sides of the occipital condyles.

7

Allograft

Bone or tissue from a human donor.

8

Allograft Bone

Sterile bone derived from another human which is used for bone grafting procedures.

9

Alloy

A substance (metal) composed of more than one metal mixed together by fusion, electrolytic deposition or other process.

10

Anatomical Position

This describes a person standing erect, with the feet together and the arms by the sides of the body, with the palms forward.

11

Ankylosing Spondylisis

A progressive, chronic, inflammatory disease of the spine, sacroiliac joints and the paravertebral soft tissues.

12

Annulus Fibrosus

The outer, fibrous, ring-like portion of an intervertebral disc.

13

Anterolateral

Situated or occurring in front of and to the side.

14

Anterior

The front portion of the body often used to indicate the position of one structure relative to another.

15

Anterior Column

The anterior part of the spine composed of vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and anterior longitudinal ligament.

16

Apical Vertebra

The most rotated vertebra in a curve the most deviated vertebra from the remove vertical axis.

17

Arthritis

Inflammation of a joint.

18

Arthrodesis

The fusion of bones across a joint space thereby limiting or eliminating movement. It may occur spontaneously or as a result of surgical procedure.

19

Arthropathy

Any disease or disorder involving a joint.

20

Arthroplasty

The surgical remodelling of a diseased or damaged joint.

21

Articular

Pertaining to a joint.

22

Asymmetry

Lack of similarity or correspondence of the limb or parts of the limbs.

23

Ataxia

A lack of co-ordination of muscular action due to disease of the central nervous system.

24

Autogenous Bone

Bone originating from the same individual; i.e. an individual's own bone.

25

Autograft Bone

Bone transplanted from one part to another part of the body in the same individual.

26

Axis of Motion

The axis of motion is perpendicular to the plane in which the joint motion occurs. The closer the axis of motion is to the body plane, the less movement there is in that body plane.

27

Benign

Describing an abnormal growth that will neither spread nor recur after removal.

28

Bifid

Divided into two parts.

29

Biocompatibility

A characteristic of some materials that when they are inserted into the body do not produce a significant rejection or immune response.

30

Biodegradation

The breakdown of organic materials into simple chemicals commonly found in the body.

31

Biomechanics

The application of mechanical laws to the living systems, with specific regard to normal locomotion and includes the mechanical laws governing the structure, function, and position of the human body.

32

Biopsy

A small piece of tissue removed from the body for microscopic analysis.

33

Bloc Vertebra

A congenital defect in which two or more vertebral bodies are fused without an intervening disc.

34

Body Planes

For the convenience of anatomists and practitioners the human body is conveniently divided into sections or reference planes.

35

Bone

The hard tissue that provides structural support to the body. It is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen. Individual bones may be classes as long, short, or flat.

36

Bone Scan

Radiologic study where patient is injected with radioactive tracer (technetium) that is absorbed by the skeleton. Increased activity is seen in arthritis, cancers and infection.

37

Bone Derivative

One of the substances extracted from bone, such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMP)

38

Bone Graft

Bone which is harvested from one location in an individual and placed in another individual (allograft bone) or in a different location in the same individual (autogenous bone).

39

Bone Marrow

The tissue contained within the internal cavities of the bones. A major function of this tissue is to produce red blood cells.

40

Cancellous Bone

The spongy or honeycomb structure of some bone tissue typically found at the ends of long bones.

41

Carcinoma

A malignant growth composed of abnormally multiplying surface tissues.

42

Cartilage

The hard, thin layer of white glossy tissue that covers the end of bone at a joint.

43

CAT Scan

Computerized Axial Tomography, is a sophisticated X-ray machine combined with a computer to create a detailed picture of the body's tissues and structures.

44

Cauda Equina

The spinal cord ends at the upper end of the lumbar region. From there down, the spinal canal is filled only with nerve roots. To the early anatomists, this tangle of nerves looked like the tail of a hose, cauda equina or horse's tail.

45

Caudal

Towards the tail or inferior point, opposite of cephalad.

46

Central Nervous System

The brain, spinal cord and spinal nerves.

47

Center of Gravity

The center of gravity (C of G) represents the center of concentration of body mass.

48

Centrum

The body of a vertebra.

49

Cephalad

In a direction towards the head.

50

Cerebral Palsy

A neurological disorder with spacticity and inco-ordination, caused by brain damage in and around the time of birth.

51

Cervical

The neck region of the spine containing the first seven vertebrae.

52

Chemonucleolysis

A treatment of an intervertebral disc that consists of an injection of chymopapain, a drug that dissolves part of the disc.

53

Chondrocyte

A mature cartilage cell that occupies a lacuna within the extracellular matrix.

54

Claudication

Limping due to muscle cramp or pain associated with activity or exertion.

55

Cobalt-Chrome

A term that is used in referring to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, a mixture of metals used in many surgical implants.

56

Cobb Angle Measurement

Measurement of spinal deformity.

57

Collagen

A fiberous protein which is a major constituent of connective tissue. Such as skein, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones.

58

Comminuted Fracture

A fracture in which a bone is broken into more than two pieces. Often internal or external fixation devices are used to maintain proper alignment of the fragments.

59

Compensatory Curve

A curve, which can be structural, above or below a major curve that tends to maintain normal body alignment.

60

Compression

The act of pressing together.

61

Concave

Curving inwards.

62

Congential

Present at and existing from the time of birth.

63

Conus Medullaris

The distal termination of the spinal cord proper in an adult.

64

Convex

Curving outwardes

65

Coronal

Refers to a sction that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.

66

Cortical Bone

The dense bone that forms the outer surface of bone.

67

CSF

Cerebro spinal fluid

68

DDD

Degenerative disc disease

69

Debridement

Removal of infected or dead tissue.

70

De-mineralized Bone

Bone tissue which has been depleted of its minerals; e.g. calcium and phosphorous.

71

Dermatome

Area of skin supplied by one spinal segment.

72

Disc (Intervertebral)

The tough, elastic structure that is between teh bodies of spinal vertebrae.

73

Disc Degeneration

The loss of structural and functional integrity of the disc.

74

Discectomy

Surgical removal of part or all of an intervertebral disc.

75

Disc herniation

Disruption to the normal integrity of the intervertebral disc, often used interchangeably with disc prolapse, disc bulge, slipped disc etc.

76

Discitis

Infection of the disc space.

77

Distal

Situated away from the center of the body.

78

Distraction

Excessive space between fracture fragments or vertebral segments due.

79

Discography

The introduction of radio-opaque fluid into the nucleus pulposus for purposes of identifying disc configuration. The resulting studies are known as discograms.

80

Donor Site

An area in your pelvic bone where the bone for the bone graft was obtained.

81

Dorsal

Relative to or situated on the posterior of back surface, opposite of ventral.

82

Downs Syndrome

A chromosomal abnormality. Skeletal abnormalities result from a lagmentous laxity and commonly include atlanto-axial instability, recurrent patella dislocation, pes planus ets.

83

Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy

A progressive muscular dystrophy inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait.

84

Dura Mater

The thickest outermost covering of teh spinal cord and spinal nerves. Also lines the inside of the skull.

85

Dysplasia

An abnormality or alteration of tissue structure.

86

Dysraphism

A defective fusion spinal dysraphism implies the failure of formation of midline spinal elements posteriorly. Any failure of closure of the primary neural tube.

87

Dystrophy

A disorder or organ or tissue, usually muscle, due to impaired nourishment of the affected part. See muscular dystrophy.

88

Dysuria

Pain with urination.

89

End Vertebra

i. The most cephalad vertebra of a curve, whose superior surface tilts maximally toward the concavity of the curve.
ii. The most caudad vertebra whose inferior surface tilts maximally toward the concavity of the curve.

90

Endogenous

Arising within or derived from the body.

91

Epidural

Situated outside the thin, tough dural membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

92

Epidural Abscess

An accumulation of purulent fluid and or pus around the covering of the spinal cord and nerve roots.

93

Epiphysitis

The inflammation of an epiphysis or the cartilage joining the epiphysis to the bone shaft.

94

Erector Spinae

Muscles of the spine that lie posteriorly. These are commonly known as the "anti-gravity" muscles.

95

Ergonomics

The account of how the workplace relates to the human and its function.

96

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

A laboratory test measuring the rate at which red blood cells settle in a test tube.

97

Excision

Removal by cutting away material.

98

Exogenous

Originating outside of the body.

99

Extruded Intervertebral Disc

The nucleus pulposus breaks through the annulus fibrosus wall, but remains within the disc.

100

Extra-articular

That which lies external to the joint.

101

Extraneural

That which lies external to nerual tissue.

102

Facet

A posterior structure of a vertebra which articulates with a facet of an adjacent vertebra. See Zygapophyseal joint.

103

Facetectomy

Excision of a facet.

104

Fasiculi

An arrangement of nerve and muscle fibres resembling a cluster or bundle of rods.

105

Fatigue Fracture

A fracture that occurs in bone or in other materials. Including metal, as a result of repeated stress as opposed to a single injury.

106

Fibrosis

The replacement of normal tissue with scar tissue.

107

Filum Terminale

The tapered, terminal end of the spinal cord.

108

Flexion

The action of bending across a joint so that the two adjacent sections approach each other. A motion away from a starting point.

109

Foramen Magnum

The opening at the base of the anterior, inferior part of the occipital bone that lies between the cranial cavity and the spinal cord. The opening through which the spinal ford passes to exit the cranium.

110

Force

This is a vector quantity, which means that it has both magnitude and direction.

111

Fracture

A disruption of the normal continuity of bone.

112

Frontal Plane

(syn. Coronal Plane) This is a flat vertical plane passing through the body from side to side, dividing it into front half and back half.

113

Fusion

Union or healing of bone (see arthrodesis).

114

Gait

A manner or style of walking. A normal gait is smooth, co-ordinated and rhythmic.

115

Gibbus

A sharply angular kyphos.

116

Goniometer

Apparatus for measuring range of motion at a joint.

117

Hangmans Fracture

A fracture of the axis, usually through the pars interarticularis just posterior to the pedicles, without fracturing the odontoid process.

118

Hemivertebra

A congential anomaly of the spine caused by incomplete development of one side of the vertebra

119

Herniated Disc

Extrusion of part of the nucleus pulposus material through a defect in the annulus fibrosus.

120

Hydroxyapatite (HA)

The lattice-like structure of bone composed of calcium and phosphorous crystals which deposits on collagen to provide the rigid structure of bone.

121

Hyper

An excessive amount of, more than normal

122

Hyperkyphosis

A kyphosis of greater than normal range.

123

Hyperlordosis

A lordosis of greater than normal range.

124

Hypertrophy

An increase in size or volume of a part or an organ, produced by an increase in size of the existing cells, not by an increase in the number of cells.

125

Hypo

Not enough of, less than normal

126

Iatrogenic

Occurring without known cause self-originated

127

Idiopathic

A condition or disease with no known cause.

128

Iliac Bone

A part of the pelvic bone that is above the hip joint and from which autogenous bone grafts are frequently obtained.

129

Iliac Crest

The large, prominent portion of the pelvic bone at the belt line of the body.

130

Immobilization

Limitation of motion or fixation of a body part usually to promote healing.

131

Inertia

This is a descriptive term used to explain the resistance offered by a body to attempt to set it in motion, or to stop it if it is already moving.

132

Infantile Scoliosis

A scoliosis which develops during the first three years of life.

133

InterCostal Muscles

Muscles lying between ribs and are often injured by rotary stress of thorax.

134

Intervertebral Disc

A cartilaginous joint between the vertebral bodies, providing extremely efficient shock absorption.

135

In Vitro

Describing biological phenomena that are made to occur outside the living body traditionally in a test tube. In vitro is Latin for glass.

136

In Vivo

Within a living body. In vivo is latin for life.

137

Inferior

Situated below or directed downward.

138

Ischemia

A deficient flow of blood to a part of the body.

139

Joint

The junction or articulation of two or more bones that permits varying degrees of motion between the bones.

140

Juvenile Scoliosis

A scoliotic deformity developing between the ages of three and seven years.

141

Kinematics

This describes motion but without reference to the forces involved.

142

Klippel-Fleil Syndrome

A congenitial malformation of the cervical spine characterized by the fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae.

143

Kyphosis

A backward curving of the spine.

144

Lamina

An anatomical portion of a vertebra. For each vertebra, two lamina connect the pedicles to the spinous process as part of the neural arch.

145

Laminectomy

An operation for removal of part or all of the lamina of a vertebra.

146

Laser

Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

147

Lateral

Situated away from the midline of the body.

148

Ligament

A band of flexible, fibrous non-elastic tissue which connects bone to bone.

149

Load Sharing

Structural support through grafts and/or implants.

150

Lordosis

A forward curving of the spine.

151

Lumbar

The lower part of the spine between the thoracic region and the sacrum

152

Lumbar Puncture

A procedure for investigation or treating nervous system diseases by inserting a needle between the vertebrae at the base of the spine to tap cerebrospinal fluid.

153

Lumbarization

A congenital anomaly of the lumbao-sacral junction. The first segment of the sacrum is fully or partially separated from remainder of the sacrum.

154

Marfan's Syndrome

A hereditary disorder of connective tissue that is characterized by abnormal elongation of the bones and often by ocular and circulatory defects, also called Marfan syndrome.

155

Mass

The amount of matter contained within a body.

156

Medial

Situated closer to the midline of the body.

157

Malignant

Designating an abnormal growth that tends to spread (metastasize).

158

Metastasis

Transmission of disease from an original site to one or more sites elsewhere in the body (as in tuberculosis or cancer).

159

Moment Arm

This is the perpendicular distance between the force and the fulcrum point.

160

Momentum

The momentum of an object is caculated by multiplying its velocity by its mass.

161

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging, a non invasive radiological test providing excellent images of soft tissue and bone.

162

Muscular Dystrophy

An hereditary disorder, characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of muscle.

163

Myelography

The introduction of a radio-opaque substance into the subarachnoid space to view the spinal cord.

164

Nerve Root

The portion of the spinal verve in close proximity to its origin from the spinal cord.

165

Neural Arch

The bony arch of the posterior aspect of a vertebra that surrounds the spinal cord, also referred to as the vertebral arch.

166

Neurogenic

Arising from any part of the nervous system.

167

Neuromuscular Disorder

Relating to a large group of disorders in which there is an affection or loss of function of muscles and peripheral nerves.

168

Neurophysiological

Relating to the nervous system.

169

Neurovascular

Relating to both nervous and vascular elements.

170

Newton

This is the Systeme Internationale (SI) unit for measuring force.

171

Non-Union

Failure of the fragments of a fractured bone to heal or to obtain bony fusion following an arthrodesis.

172

Nucleus Pulposos

The simi-gelatinous tissue in the center of an intervertebral disc.

173

Ossification

The process of forming bone in the body.

174

Osteoporosis

A disorder in which bone is weakened due to mineral loss.

175

Osteophyte

Outgrowth of bone, usually in reaction to pathological processes within, or at, a joint.

176

Pathology

The study of disease states

177

Pedicle

The part of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra. It connects the lamina with the vertebral body.

178

Pelvic Obliquity

Deviation of the pelvis from the horizontal in the frontal plane.

179

Periosteum

A fibrous membrane that covers the surface of bones.

180

Physiology

The science of functioning of living organisms, and of their component systems or parts.

181

Posterior

Located behind a structure, such as relating to the back side of the human body.

182

Prolapse

The falling down or slipping out of place of an organ or part.

183

Proximal

Nearest the center of the body.

184

Pseudoarthrosis

A form of non-union in which there is the formation of a false joint.

185

Range of Motion

This refers to the available movement provided by a joint.

186

Resection

The surgical removal of part of a structure, such as bone.

187

Resorption

The removal of bone tissue by normal physiological process or as part of a pathological process such as an infection.

188

Retrolisthesis

Posterior slippage of one vertebra on another.

189

Rhizotomy

Surgical transection of a nerve root.

190

Rib Hump

The prominence of the ribs on the convexity of a spinal curvature, usually due to vertebral rotation best exhibited on forward bending.

191

Rotation

The movement of one vertebra to another about its normal or abnormal coronal axis.

192

Ruptured Disc

See Herniated Disc.

193

Sacro-iliac Joint

The joint formed between the medial surface of the ilium and the lateral aspect of the upper sacral vertebrae.

194

Sacrum

A part of the spine that is also part of the pelvis.

195

Sagittal Plane

A flat vertical plane passing through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left half.

196

Sarcoma

A malignant tumor arising from diseased connective tissue.

197

Scheuermann's Disease

Adolescent disorder characterized by radiological findings of vertebral wedging.

198

Schmorl's Node

Described as a fractured end plates, often large enough to allow the nucleus pulposus to extrude into the vertebral body.

199

Sclerotome

Historical depiction, via a body map, indicating regions of the body that are supplied by a spinal nerve.

200

Sepsis

A state of infection of tissue due to disease-producing bacteria or toxins.

201

Sequestrated Disc

A term describing the complete detachment of a portion of prolapsed nucleus pulposus, with migration, often into the spinal canal.

202

Skeleton

The rigid framework of bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports the soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for muscles.

203

Spina Bifida Occulta

Non-union of the laminae, most commonly L5, posteriorly behind the cauda equina.

204

Spinal Canal

The bony channel that is formed by the intervertebral foramen of the vertebrae and in which contains the spinal cord and nerve roots.

205

Spinal Column

See spine.

206

Spinal Cord.

The longitudinal cord of nerve tissue that is enclosed in the spinal canal.

207

Spinal Disc

See Disc

208

Spinal Fusion

A surgical procedure to permanently join bone by interconnecting tow or more vertebrae in order to prevent motion. See Arthrodesis.

209

Spinal Stenosis

Reduction in diameter of the spinal canal due to new bone formation which may result in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

210

Spine

The flexible bone column extending from the base of the skull to the tailbone.

211

Spinous Process

The portion of the vertebrae that protrudes posteriorly from the spinal column.

212

Spondylitis

Inflammation of the vertebrae.

213

Spondylolisthesis

Displacement of one vertebrae over another with fracture of a posterior portion of the vertebra.

214

Spondylosis

Degenerative processes which affect the intervertebral disc.

215

Stainless Steel

Iron-based metal containing chromium that is highly resistant to stain, rust, and corrosion.

216

Sterile

Free from living organisms

217

Sterilization

The method used to render a material free from living organisms. Usual methods include steam under pressure, gas, and ionizing radiation.

218

Subluxation

An incomplete dislocation of a joint. Gradual displacement or partial dislocation produced within a joint.

219

Superior

Situated above or directed upward toward the head of an individual.

220

Technetium Bone Scan

A sensitive radiological investigation, utilizing a radio-isotope, used in the detection of stress fractures, as well as other bony pathology.

221

Tendon

The fiberous band of tissue that connects muscle to bone.

222

Thoracic

The chest level region of the spine that is located between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae.

223

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Compression of the neurovascular bundle, comprising the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery.

224

Titanium

A metallic element used to make surgical implants.

225

Toxicology

The study of toxic or harmful effects of substances on the body.

226

Translation

Vertebral body displacement - can describe lateral anterior or posterior displacement.

227

Transverse

Refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.

228

Vector

This has a direction and a magnitude e.g. a force is a vector.

229

Velocity

This is the rate at which a moving object changes position.

230

Vertebra

One of 33 bones of the spinal column.

231

Vertebral End-Plates

The superior and inferior plates of cortical bone of the vertebral body adjacent to the intervertebral disc.

232

Xenograft

A graft derived from one species for use in another species.

233

Zygapophyseal Joint

Formed between the superior articular process of the lower vertebra and the inferior articular process of the upper vertebra.