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Flashcards in Axial Skeleton Focused Deck (27):
1

How many movable vertebrae are there in the spinal column?

24

2

How many vertebrae are found in each section of the spine?

Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacrum - 1 made of 5 fused bones
Coccyx - 1 made of 4 fused bones

3

Define lordosis and state which areas of the spine have a lordotic curve.

Inward curvature of the spine. The cervical and lumbar regions have lordotic curves.

4

Define kyphosis and state which areas of the spine have a kyphotic curve.

Outward curvature of the spine. The thoracic and sacrum regions have kyphotic curves.

5

What are the "accepted normal" degrees of curvature in the thoracic and lumbar regions?

Thoracic - 20° - 40°
Lumbar - 30° - 50°

6

Cephalad

In a direction towards the head.

7

Caudal

Towards the tail or inferior point, opposite of cephalad.

8

Dorsal

Relative to or situated on the posterior or back surface, opposite of ventral.

9

Ventral

The surface directed towards the belly or ground.

10

Which parts of the vertebra make up the anterior column?

The body

11

What parts of the vertebra make up the posterior column?

A vertebral or neural arch and articular processes.

12

State which parts make up the neural arch.

2 pedicles and two laminae.

13

What is the intervertebral foramen?

Where the nerve roots exit the spinal column.

14

Which anatomical features of the vertebrae form the intervertebral foramen?

Vertebral notches on the inferior and superior borders of pedicles.

15

What is the function of the intervertebral foramen?

Provides a passageway for nerves to exit the spinal column.

16

What is an articular facet?

A posterior structure of a vertebra which articulates with a facet of an adjacent vertebra.

17

What is the function of an articular facet?

The articular processes interlock the vertebrae, preventing anterior displacement and restrict movement between vertebrae.

18

Name the two main component parts of the disc.

Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus

19

What are the lamellae?

Layers of collagen fibers that form the annulus fibrosus

20

What is the function of the lamellae?

To prevent prolapse of the nucleus.

21

What is cauda equina?

The spinal cord ends at the upper end of the lumbar region. From there down, the spinal canal is filled only with nerve roots. These roots look like a horse's tail or cauda equina.

22

At which level of the spine does the cauda equina start?

L1

23

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31

24

How are the spinal nerves divided amongst the regions of the spinal column?

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal

25

What are myotomes?

The group of muscles that a single spinal nerve root innervates.

26

What are dermatomes?

Area of skin supplied by one spinal segment.

27

What is the clinical significance of myotomes and dermatomes?

The clinician stimulates the sensory nerve by striking an area of the body where the nerve is close to the surface. The impulse generated travels up the nerve as a sensory impulse through the spinal cord and back down the nerve as a motor impulse. Absence of change in reaction to the stimulus can be used to diagnose nerve disfunction.