Anatomy 11 - Histology of Muscles Flashcards Preview

Second Year - Anatomy CA21007 > Anatomy 11 - Histology of Muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 11 - Histology of Muscles Deck (50)
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1

What is a muscle

A band or bundle of fibrous tissue that has the ability to contract

2

What are the three types of muscle

Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle

3

Characteristics of skeletal muscle

Striated, voluntary, and contains multiple nuclei

4

Where do the nuclei of skeletal muscle lie

At the periphery of the fibre, just under the cell membrane

5

What is the cell membrane known as in uncle cells

The sarcolemma

6

Groups of muscle fibres are known as

Fascicles

7

Connective tissue surrounding the muscle as a whole is known as

The epimysium

8

Connective tissue around each individual fascicle is known as

The perimysium

9

Connective tissue around each single muscle fibre is known as

The endomysium

10

What are the smallest contractile fibres in a muscle

Sarcomeres

11

Hundreds of thousands of sarcomeres join together to form

A myofibril

12

What does cardiac muscle form

The major parts of the walls of the heart chambers and origins of the great vessels

13

Characteristic of cardiac muscle

Striated (but not as prominent as skeletal), branch to form a complex network and have a single nucleus

14

Where is the nucleus of cardiac cells found

Near the centre of the fibres

15

What do cardiac myocytes have

An intrinsic rhythmic contraction

16

What do gap junctions allow for

Synchronisation of contraction between cells and allow for waves of electrical excitation to sweep through the tissue

17

Characteristics of smooth muscle

It is involuntary, visceral, has no visible striations and has a single nucleus

18

Where is smooth muscle predominantly found

In organs

19

What are the fibres of smooth muscle like

They are elongated, spindle-shaped cells

20

The nucleus of smooth muscle

Is cigar-shaped and lies in the centre of each fibre

21

What muscle fibres allow for contraction

Actin and myosin

22

The specialised smooth ER in muscle cells is known as

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

23

What ion is in high concentration in the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Ca++

24

What neurotransmitter is release in muscle cells

Acetylecholine

25

What are the tubules within muscle cells known as

Transverse tubules or T-tubules

26

What lies on either side of the T-tubules

The sarcoplasmic reticulum

27

What is collectively known as a triad

T-tubule and the two branches of sarcoplasmic reticulum on either side

28

What does acetylcholine cause to be released in the muscle cell

An action potential

29

What does the action potential in the muscle cell cause the release of

Ca++

30

What does the release of Ca++ cause within the muscle fibres

It cause the myosin fibrils to ratchet across the actin fibrils