Anatomy 18 - The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy 18 - The Endocrine System Deck (76)
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1

What is the endocrine system

A system of ductless glands that regulate bodily function via hormones

2

What are the main functions of the endocrine system

It maintains homeostasis, it helps the body react to stress, it is a major regulator of growth and development and it controls physical and behavioural activities

3

How does it maintain homeostasis

By regulating activities such as the concentration of chemicals in body fluids and the metabolism of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

4

What are the tissues/glands within the endocrine system known as

Endocrine glands

5

What do endocrine glands do

They secrete chemicals into extracellular space

6

What are the chemicals secreted by the glands called

Hormones

7

How is it determined which cells are acted on by specific hormones

Only cells with the compatible receptors will be affected by specific hormones

8

What are the three ways in which endocrine glands are stimulated

Hormonal, humoral and neural

9

What is hormonal stimulation

When the stimulation of a gland occurs through hormones being secreted from somewhere else e.g. the pituitary stimulating the thyroid

10

What is humoral stimulation

The stimulation of a target gland through the presence of a molecule within the bloodstream

11

What is neural stimulation

Stimulation of a gland via direct signals from the nervous system

12

What are the central glands of the endocrine system

The pineal and pituitary glands

13

What are the peripheral glands of the endocrine system

The thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal/suprarenal glands and the pancreas

14

Where is the pineal gland situated

In the roof of the 3rd ventricle

15

What are the cells within the pineal gland called

Pinealocytes

16

What is the major secretory product of the pineal gland

Melatonin

17

What is melatonin involved in

Regulating sleep

18

What is the pituitary gland split into

The anterior and posterior pituitary

19

What is the pineal gland involved in regulating

Day/night cycles

20

What is the anterior pituitary composed of

Glandular tissue

21

Function of the anterior pituitary

To manufacture and release hormones

22

Hormones released from where control secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary

The ventral hypothalamus

23

Through what system is the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary controlled

The hypophyseal portal system

24

What is the posterior pituitary composed of

Neural tissue

25

Function of posterior pituitary

Acts as a storage area and releases neurohormones

26

Where are the neurohormones released by the posterior pituitary made

The hypothalamus

27

Where is the pituitary located

In the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcia of the sphenoid bone

28

What takes up hormones released by the pituitary

The bloodstream

29

What hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary

Growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and prolactin

30

What regulates growth hormone

Growth hormone releasing hormone and growth hormone inhibiting hormone