Anatomy 17 - The Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Second Year - Anatomy CA21007 > Anatomy 17 - The Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 17 - The Integumentary System Deck (68):
1

What is the integumentary system composed of

Skin and associated hair, nails, sensory receptors and sweat glands

2

Functions of the skin

Provides protection, helps maintain homeostasis, temperature control and provides sensory information

3

Three layers of the skin

The epidermis, dermis and hypodermis

4

What is the epidermis composed of

Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

5

The dermis is made up of

Connective tissue

6

What does the hypodermis have

A rich blood supply and a fat layer

7

What do stratified epithelium protect against

Mechanical abrasion

8

What is the function of the keraatin in the epithelium

To prevent water loss

9

What does the continuos epithelium protect against

Microorgansims

10

What in the dermis proctets against stretching

Elastin and collagen fibres

11

How is temperature regulated

By blood flow, hair, fat and sweat glands

12

What are the different types of cell found within the epidermis

Keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhan cells and merkel cells

13

Function of keratinocytes

Produce keratin

14

Function of melaninocytes

To produce the pigemt melanin

15

What does melanin protect from

Damaging UV rays

16

Where do Langerhan cells originate from

Bone marrow

17

Function of Langerhan cells

Protect against microbes

18

Function of merkel cells

To contact the sensory receptors and detect touch sensation

19

What are the layers of the epidermis

Stratum basale, stratum granulosum, stadum lucidum and stratum corneum

20

What is the stratum basale

The deepest layer of columnar keratinocytes

21

What happens within the stratum granulosum

Keratinocytes gradually flatten and undergo apoptosis

22

Where is the stadum lucidum found

On the palms, fingertips and soles of the feet

23

What is the stratum corneum

The final layer of flattened dead keratinocytes

24

In which layer of the epidermis are new cells formed

Stratum basale

25

In which layer can stem cells be found

The stratum basale

26

In what layer of the skin are blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles and glands found

In the dermis

27

Where are epidermal ridges found

On the palms, fingertips and soles of the feet

28

What is degloving

When decomposition causes the epidermis and dermis to separate

29

Melanin pigment that is yellow/red in colour

Phenomelanin

30

Melanin pigment that is brown/black

Eumelanin

31

What absorbs melanin

The keratinocytes

32

A compete lack of melanin is known as

Albinism

33

What are hemangiomas

Benign tumours of dermal blood capilaries

34

What is a mole

An aggreagation of melanocytes

35

Where does caretene concentrate

In the stratum corneum and subcutaneous fat layers

36

What causes cyanosis

Deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood

37

What is erythma

A redness due to dilated cutaneous vessels

38

What causes jaundice

An excess of bilirubin in the blood

39

What is pallor

Paleness due to a lack of blood flow

40

What is a haematoma

A bruise

41

What cancer cells arise from the stratum basale

Basal cell carcinomas

42

Where do basal cell carcinomas invade

The dermis

43

How can basal cell carcinomas be treated

By radiation or by being surgically removed

44

What cells do squamous cell carcinomas arise from

Keratinocytes

45

What layer of skin do squamous cell carcinomas form in

Stratum spinosum

46

What makes squamous cell carcinomas lethal

Metastitis to the lymph nodes

47

What is the most deadly form of cancer

Malignant melanoma

48

What do malignant melanomas arise from

Melanocytes of a pre-existing mole

49

How can a malignant melanoma be identified

Asymmetry, border irregularity, colour mix, diamter ver 6mm - ABCD

50

What causes acne vulgaris

Incread hormonal activity with excessive skin secretion

51

Where does acne vulgaris affect

Face, chest, upper back and shoulders

52

What is another name for decubitus ulcers

Bed sores

53

What causes bed sores

When skin in close relation to bone has pressure constanlty applied to it so the blood vessels compress cause the tissue to be deprived of oxygen and nutrients

54

What are warts

Benign epithelial tumours

55

How are warts transmitted

Through direct contact

56

What thickness are 1st degree burns

Partial thickness

57

What thickness are 2nd degree burns

Partial thickness

58

What thickness are 3rd degree burns

Full thickness

59

How are thrid degree burns treated

By skin grafts

60

What is an autograft

Tissue taken from a different part of the patient

61

What is an isograft

Tissue taken from an identical twin

62

What is a homograft

Tissue taken from an unrelated person

63

What is a heterograft

Tissue taken from another species

64

What can skin graft be taken from that is produced in the afterbirth

The amnion

65

What is artificial skin made form

Silicon and collagen

66

Burns that cover less than 10% of the body are classified as

Minor

67

Burns that cover more than 15% of the body are classified as

Serious

68

Burns that cover more than 20% of the body are classified as

Severe