Anatomy 16 - Anatomy and Histology of the Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Second Year - Anatomy CA21007 > Anatomy 16 - Anatomy and Histology of the Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 16 - Anatomy and Histology of the Nervous System Deck (59):
1

Nerves that take information to the brain are known as

Afferent nerves

2

Nerve that take informatoin from the brain are known as

Efferent nerves

3

What is the nervous system composed of

The central nervous system and the periperal nervous system

4

What is the function of the nervous system

To control and coordinate the function of organ systems

5

What are the three membranous layers that cover the brain

The pia mater, the arichnoid mater and the dura mater

6

What are the three membranous lyaers that cover the brain known as

The meninges

7

What surrounds and protects the CNs

The meninges and the ceribrospinal fluid

8

What is the innermost meningal covering

The pia mater

9

What is the middle meningal covering

The arichnoid mater

10

What is the outermst meningal covering

The dura mater

11

What is the dura mater intimately related to

The internal aspect o the bone surrounding the neurocranium

12

What separates the dura mater from the surrounding bone in the vertebral column

A fat filled epidural space

13

What are the main arteries that supply the brain

The common carotid, external carotid, internal carotid and vertebral arteries

14

What is formed when the vertebral arteries join

The basilar artery

15

What arteries come from the bifurcation of the basilar artery

The anterior and middle cerebral arteries

16

What arises from the external carotid artery

the middle meningeal artery

17

Where does the middle meningeal artery enter the skull

Through the foramen spinosum

18

What drains blood from the brain

The dural venous sinuses

19

Where do the dural venous sinuses drain blood into

The internal jugular vein

20

What veins drain the head

The anterior jugular, external jugular, internal jugular, vertebral and retromandibular veins

21

What are the brain and spinal cord composed of

Grey matter and white matter

22

Where are the nerve cell bodies found

Within the grey matter

23

Where are the interconnecting fibre tract systems found

Within the white matter

24

What is held within the grey matter

Neurons, cell processes, synapses and support cells

25

What is held within the white matter

Axons and their support cells

26

What is the appearance of the grey matter in the spinal cord

An h-shaped area

27

What is the outer layer of matter in the spinal cord

White matter

28

What are the two principle cells of the nervous system

Neurons and glial cells

29

Functions of neurons

Recieve information, integrate he information and then transmit electrical impulses to another neuron/effector cell

30

What are the four tyes of glial cells

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and ependymal cells

31

What glial cells have many processes and are usually star-shaped

Astrocytes

32

Function of astrocytes

Support, maintaining the blod-brain barrier and environmental homeostasis

33

What type of ytissue is not found within the CNS

Conective tissue

34

Function of oligodendrocytes

Produce myelin but only in the CNS

35

Function of microglia

They are involved in immune monitoring and antigen presentation

36

WHat are cuboidal/columnar epithelium

Ependymal cells

37

Principle roles of the CNS

To integrate and coordinate incoming and outgoing nerual signals and to carry out higher mental function

38

What systems are found within the brain

Somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system and endocrine functions

39

In the CNS a collection of nerve cell bodies is known as

A nucleus

40

In the CNS a bundle of fibres is known as

Tracts

41

What is the function of bundles of fibres within the CNS

To connect the nuclei

42

What does the PNS consist of

Nerve fibres and cell bodies that lie outside the CNS

43

What makes up a nerve of the PNS

A cell body with a nucleus, an axon and a myelin sheath

44

Nerves that leave the cranium are known as

Cranial nerves

45

Nerve that leave the vertebral column are known as

Spinal nerves

46

Within the PNS cell body aggregations constitue a

Ganglion

47

Within the PNS what do a bundle of fibres, the connective tissue and blood vessels serving it constitue

A nerve

48

What constitues the autonomic nervous sytem

Motor fibres

49

What does the ANS stimulate

Smooth muscle, modified cardiac muscle and glandular cells

50

What are the two systems of the ANS

The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

51

Where are the cell bodies of presynaptic nerurons of the sympathetic system found

In the nuclei of the spinal cord/the intermedoilateral cell columns

52

Where are the cell bodies of the postsynaptic neurones of the smpathetic system found

The paravertebral ganglia and the prevertebral ganglia

53

Where is the paravertebral ganglia

The left and right synaptic trunks on each side of the vertebral column

54

Where is the prevertebral ganglia

In the plexus that surround the origins of the main branches of the abdominal aorta

55

What is the primary function of the symapthetic system

To regulate blod vessels

56

Presynaptic parasympathetic nerve fibres that exit the CNS with cranial nerves are known as

Cranial parasympathetic outflow

57

Presynaptic parasympathetic nerve fibres that exit through the anterior roots of the sacral spinal nerves and pelvic splanchic nerves are known as

Sacral parasympathetic outflow

58

What type of system is the sympathetic system

Catabolic

59

What type of system is the parasympathetic system

Anabolic/homeostatic