Flashcards in Anatomy 1.7 Deck (68):
Which bones make up the neurocranium?
What is the weakest part of the skull?
pterion (intersection of frontal, sphenoid, temporal, parietal); middle meningeal artery runs deep
Which part of the brain is the telecephalon made from and what does it comprise?
Which part of the brain is the diencephalon made from and what does it comprise?
Which part of the brain is the mesencephalon made from and what does it comprise?
Which part of the brain is the metencephalon made from and what does it comprise?
Which part of the brain is the myelencephalon made from and what does it comprise?
What is the basal ganglia?
group of nucluei in cerebral part of brain surrounding thalamus
What are the general cerebral functions?
-associate/connective (relate sensory input and resulting action)
What are the functions of the frontal lobe?
-higher level reasoning & cognitive functions
-language functions & interpretation
What are the functions of the parietal lobe?
-interpretation & processing of sensory stimuli
-movement & orientation
What are the functions of the temporal lobe?
-*primary auditory cortex
What are the functions of the occipital lobe?
primary visual cortex
What are the functions of the insular lobe?
-integration pain & temperature sensation
What are the functions of the limbic lobe?
What are the functions of the basal ganglia?
-Intimate connections with cerebral cortex, thalamus, limbic system, brainstem and other areas
-Involved with voluntary body movement, eye movements, learning, repeated behavior or habits, cognition, emotion
What is white matter comprised of?
What is gray matter comprised of?
neuron cell bodies
What does the central sulcus divide?
frontal and parietal lobes
What is the function of the precentral gyrus?
What is the function of the postcentral gyrus?
What are the layers of the brain from superficial to deep?
1) dura mater
-periosteal and meningeal layers
2) arachnoid mater
3) pia mater
What runs in the subarachnoid space?
CSF and vasculature
Which space is made between the fusion of the periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura mater?
falx; dural sinus (EX: superior sagittal sinus)
What is the epithalamus?
contains pineal gland, habenular nuclei, commissure
What connects the right and left thalamus?
interthalamic adhesion; mechanism by which right and left thalamus communicate
What is an important gland of the hypothalamus?
What is an important gland of the epithalamus?
pineal gland (secretes melatonin)
What is the function of the diencephalon region of the brain?
-sensory relay station of the brain
-motor information to and from cerebral cortex
-connects limbic system to motor pathways
-circadian rhythms and sleep
What is the pituitary gland, structurally?
-pea-sized gland in bony sella turcica
-large ant. and small post. lobes
-connected to hypothalamus
What are the functions of the pituitary gland?
Anterior lobe hormones:
1) growth hormone
2) thyroid stimulating hormone
3) adrenocorticotrophic hormone
4) follicular stimulating hormones
5) luteinzing hormone
Posterior lobe hormones;
How does the anterior lobe of the pituitary lobe connect to the hypothalamus?
portal system of connecting blood vessels
How does the posterior lobe of the pituitary lobe connect to the hypothalamus?
direct neuronal transmission
What is the order of the brainstem structures from superior to inferior?
What are the functions of the brainstem?
-body and eye movement
-vision and hearing
-sensory interpretation (sleep and onsciousness)
-autonomic body functions (breathing, heart rate)
What are the lobes of the cerebellum?
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
-coordination of movement
Where does the spinal cord end?
L2; cauda equina extends inferiorly
What structure prevents L-R movement of the spinal cord?
What structure prevents the superior-inferior movement of the spinal cord?
What is the blood supply of the brain?
(post: vertebral a.)
(ant: internal coratid a.)
-circle of willis
-venous sinuses to the internal jugular vein
How many branches does the internal coratid artery have?
What does the middle meningeal artery branch from?
external coratid artery
What is the function of the circle of willis?
connects the anterior and posterior blood supply of the brain
What is the blood supply to the spinal cord?
anterior spinal a. (ventral)
2 posterior spinal aa. (dorsal)
segmental radicular and medullary aa. (horizontally)
From where do the anterior and posterior spinal arteries branch?
From where do the anterior and posterior radicular arteries branch?
posterior intercostal arteries; run to posterior and anterior roots of all spinal arteries
What is the great artery of Adamkiewicz?
-largest anterior medullary artery
-provides major blood supply to lumbar and sacral cord
Where do medullary arteries branch into?
directly to anterior and posterior spinal arteries
Where does the CSF exist?
Where is CSF secreted?
cori plexus of ventricles
What are the ventricles of the brain?
lateral ventricle (2)
How does the CSF exit the ventricles?
-2 openings of luschka (lateral)
-1 opening (medial)
-4th opening doe NOT go to SAS
-empty into subarachnoid space
What is the function of the arachnoid vili?
maintain fluid balance of CSF in subarachnoid space
What is hydrocephalus?
abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain
What are the causes of hydrocephalus?
-hypoexcretion (via vili dysfunction)
-obstruction (cerebral aqueduct most common)
What is the enteric system?
-part of Autonomic Nervous System
-controls GI motility and secretions
-Auerbach's plexus (myenteric)
-Meissner's plexus (submucosal)
Which nerves make up the parasympathetic nervous system?
CN III, VII, IX, X
What is the parasympathetic innervation of the chest and abdominal cavity?
vagus nerve (CN X)
Which nerves make up the sympathetic nervous system?
What are the neuron lengths for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?
short preganglionic neuron
long postganglionic neuron
long preganglionic neuron
short postganglionic neuron
Where do preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic synapse?
paravertebral ganglia of sympathetic chain (chain gang)
major abdominal ganglia (through sympathetic chain)
Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla (direct synapse on cell bodies)
What are splanchnic nerves?
-Paired nerves that innervate the viscera (efferent & afferent visceral fibers)
-exception: pelvic splanchnics are parasympathetic
What is unique about the synapsing of splanchnic nerves?
Leave the spinal cord passing through the sympathetic chain without synapsing to enter the major abdominal ganglia
What are the major sensory pathways?
What are the major motor pathways?
What is the two neuron system?
upper motor neuron: cell bodies in cerebral cortex of frontal lobe
lower motor neuron: cell bodies in CNS