Anatomy 1.7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy 1.7 Deck (68):
1

Which bones make up the neurocranium?

1) frontal
2) parietal
3) temporal
4) occipital
5) ethymoid
6) sphenoid

2

What is the weakest part of the skull?

pterion (intersection of frontal, sphenoid, temporal, parietal); middle meningeal artery runs deep

3

Which part of the brain is the telecephalon made from and what does it comprise?

forebrain

cerebral cortex
basal canglia
hippocampus
amygdala

4

Which part of the brain is the diencephalon made from and what does it comprise?

forebrain

thalamus
hypothalamus
epithalamus

5

Which part of the brain is the mesencephalon made from and what does it comprise?

forebrain

tectum
tegumentum

6

Which part of the brain is the metencephalon made from and what does it comprise?

midbrain

pons
cerebellum

7

Which part of the brain is the myelencephalon made from and what does it comprise?

hindbrain

medulla

8

What is the basal ganglia?

group of nucluei in cerebral part of brain surrounding thalamus

9

What are the general cerebral functions?

-sensory
-motor
-associate/connective (relate sensory input and resulting action)

10

What are the functions of the frontal lobe?

-higher level reasoning & cognitive functions
-emotional control
-motor skills
-language functions & interpretation

11

What are the functions of the parietal lobe?

-interpretation & processing of sensory stimuli
-movement & orientation

12

What are the functions of the temporal lobe?

-*primary auditory cortex
-smell
-speech
-memory formation

13

What are the functions of the occipital lobe?

primary visual cortex

14

What are the functions of the insular lobe?

-integration pain & temperature sensation
-language function

15

What are the functions of the limbic lobe?

-emotions
-memory

16

What are the functions of the basal ganglia?

-Intimate connections with cerebral cortex, thalamus, limbic system, brainstem and other areas
-Involved with voluntary body movement, eye movements, learning, repeated behavior or habits, cognition, emotion

17

What is white matter comprised of?

axons

18

What is gray matter comprised of?

neuron cell bodies

19

What does the central sulcus divide?

frontal and parietal lobes

20

What is the function of the precentral gyrus?

motor

21

What is the function of the postcentral gyrus?

sensory

22

What are the layers of the brain from superficial to deep?

skull
1) dura mater
-periosteal and meningeal layers
2) arachnoid mater
3) pia mater

23

What runs in the subarachnoid space?

CSF and vasculature

24

Which space is made between the fusion of the periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura mater?

falx; dural sinus (EX: superior sagittal sinus)

25

What is the epithalamus?

contains pineal gland, habenular nuclei, commissure

26

What connects the right and left thalamus?

interthalamic adhesion; mechanism by which right and left thalamus communicate

27

What is an important gland of the hypothalamus?

pituitary gland

28

What is an important gland of the epithalamus?

pineal gland (secretes melatonin)

29

What is the function of the diencephalon region of the brain?

Thalamus:
-sensory relay station of the brain
-motor information to and from cerebral cortex

Hypothalamus:
-appetite, thirst
-emotions
-body temp
-circadian rhythms

Epithalamus:
-connects limbic system to motor pathways
-emotions
-circadian rhythms and sleep

30

What is the pituitary gland, structurally?

-pea-sized gland in bony sella turcica
-large ant. and small post. lobes
-connected to hypothalamus

31

What are the functions of the pituitary gland?

Anterior lobe hormones:
1) growth hormone
2) thyroid stimulating hormone
3) adrenocorticotrophic hormone
4) follicular stimulating hormones
5) luteinzing hormone
6) prolactin

Posterior lobe hormones;
1) vasopressin
2) oxytocin

32

How does the anterior lobe of the pituitary lobe connect to the hypothalamus?

portal system of connecting blood vessels

33

How does the posterior lobe of the pituitary lobe connect to the hypothalamus?

direct neuronal transmission

34

What is the order of the brainstem structures from superior to inferior?

-midbrain
-pons
-medulla

35

What are the functions of the brainstem?

Midbrain:
-body and eye movement
-vision and hearing

Pons:
-motor control
-sensory interpretation (sleep and onsciousness)

Medulla:
-autonomic body functions (breathing, heart rate)

36

What are the lobes of the cerebellum?

-anterior
-posterior
-flocculonodular

37

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

-coordination of movement
-posture
-balance

38

Where does the spinal cord end?

L2; cauda equina extends inferiorly

39

What structure prevents L-R movement of the spinal cord?

denticular ligaments

40

What structure prevents the superior-inferior movement of the spinal cord?

filum terminale

41

What is the blood supply of the brain?

-major vessels
(post: vertebral a.)
(ant: internal coratid a.)
-circle of willis
-venous sinuses to the internal jugular vein

42

How many branches does the internal coratid artery have?

zero

43

What does the middle meningeal artery branch from?

external coratid artery

44

What is the function of the circle of willis?

connects the anterior and posterior blood supply of the brain

45

What is the blood supply to the spinal cord?

anterior spinal a. (ventral)

2 posterior spinal aa. (dorsal)

segmental radicular and medullary aa. (horizontally)

46

From where do the anterior and posterior spinal arteries branch?

vertebral artery

47

From where do the anterior and posterior radicular arteries branch?

posterior intercostal arteries; run to posterior and anterior roots of all spinal arteries

48

What is the great artery of Adamkiewicz?

-largest anterior medullary artery
-provides major blood supply to lumbar and sacral cord
-T8-L1

49

Where do medullary arteries branch into?

directly to anterior and posterior spinal arteries

50

Where does the CSF exist?

subarachnoid space

51

Where is CSF secreted?

cori plexus of ventricles

52

What are the ventricles of the brain?

lateral ventricle (2)
third ventricle
fourth ventricle

53

How does the CSF exit the ventricles?

-2 openings of luschka (lateral)
-1 opening (medial)
-4th opening doe NOT go to SAS
-empty into subarachnoid space

54

What is the function of the arachnoid vili?

maintain fluid balance of CSF in subarachnoid space

55

What is hydrocephalus?

abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain

56

What are the causes of hydrocephalus?

-hyperproduction
-hypoexcretion (via vili dysfunction)
-obstruction (cerebral aqueduct most common)

57

What is the enteric system?

-part of Autonomic Nervous System
-controls GI motility and secretions
-Auerbach's plexus (myenteric)
-Meissner's plexus (submucosal)

58

Which nerves make up the parasympathetic nervous system?

CN III, VII, IX, X

S2-4

59

What is the parasympathetic innervation of the chest and abdominal cavity?

vagus nerve (CN X)

60

Which nerves make up the sympathetic nervous system?

T1-L2

61

What are the neuron lengths for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?

SNS:
short preganglionic neuron
long postganglionic neuron

PNS:
long preganglionic neuron
short postganglionic neuron

62

Where do preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic synapse?

paravertebral ganglia of sympathetic chain (chain gang)

major abdominal ganglia (through sympathetic chain)

Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla (direct synapse on cell bodies)

63

What are splanchnic nerves?

-Paired nerves that innervate the viscera (efferent & afferent visceral fibers)
-mostly sympathetic
-exception: pelvic splanchnics are parasympathetic

64

What is unique about the synapsing of splanchnic nerves?

Leave the spinal cord passing through the sympathetic chain without synapsing to enter the major abdominal ganglia

65

What are the major sensory pathways?

-spinothalamic
-dorsal column
-spinocerebellar

66

What are the major motor pathways?

-pyramidal
-extra-pyramidal

67

What is the two neuron system?

motor pathways;
upper motor neuron: cell bodies in cerebral cortex of frontal lobe
lower motor neuron: cell bodies in CNS

68

What is the three neuron system?

sensory pathways;
first order neuron
second order neuron
third order neuron