Flashcards in Neurology 1.2 Deck (27):
What is encephalopathy?
"disease of the brain” generally in its entirety (both cerebral hemispheres). i.e., metabolic encephalopathy
What is myelopathy?
“disease of the spinal cord” i.e, compressive myelopathy (tumor, disc, etc causing weakness, sensory loss, spasticity below the level of compression)
What is radiculopathy?
“disease of the nerve root(s)” i.e., any process affecting a single or multiple nerve roots at cervical, thoracic or lumbar or sacral level
What is neuropathy?
Neuropathy: “disease of a nerve” (one is mononeuropathy or neuropathy, several individual is mononeuropathy multiplex, and many/diffuse is polyneuropathy peripheral nerves. Dysfunction of a single cranial nerve = cranial mononeuropathy)
What is myopathy?
“primary disease of muscle”
What does the suffix -itis imply when describing dysfunction?
inflammation proces affecting a region of the nervous system
What is meningitis?
inflammation of the membranes covering brain and spinal cord; not always infectious cause.
What is an embolus?
any detached, traveling intravascular mass carried by circulation
What is delirium?
generally a temporary disorder of mental faculties often characterized by restlessness, delusions, agitation or withdrawal
What is the significance of localized delirium?
likely a cortical structure lesion (Where>What>How)
What is cognition?
: Implies a group of mental processes that includes attention, memory, learning, reasoning, problem solving,, decision making (processing, applying knowledge and adjusting).
Is cognition generally mono-hemispheric or bi-hemispheric?
What is paresis?
muscle weakness but not complete
What is plegia?
What is plexopathy?
damage to the brachial plexus
What is the cerebral cortex?
(precentral gyrus of each frontal lobe; upper motor neurons). Pathway of axons comprising corticospinal tract.
Which types of lesions typically cause weakness?
lesions at any level of upper or lower motor neuron pathway (first and second order neurons)
Which types of lesions typically cause motor loss?
deep hemispheric/capsular lesions (i.e., hypertensive internal capsular infarction)
What are the implications of lower motor neuron lesions?
-anterior horn cell
-motor nerve cell
**decreased reflexes in involved limb
**flaccidity and atrophy if chronic
What are the implications of thalamic lesions?
sensory dysfunction over contralateral body
What are the implications of cortical lesions?
parathesias or hyperthesia in corresponding contralateral body areas corresponding to cortical territory involved
What is meralgia paresthetica?
lateral femoral cutaneous nerve lesion (sensory)
What is Brown-Sequard Syndrome?
spinal cord lesion resulting in:
-weakness/paralysis on one side of the body
-decreased sensation on the opposite side
**all below level of spinal cord lesion
What is ataxic gait?
wide-based unsteady gait (looks enebriated)
What is unilateral corticospinal tract disease?
hemiparetic gait (stiff, circumduction, overextended leg)
What is bilateral corticospinal tract disease?
-both legs stiff
-sometimes w/ scissoring motion of each leg around the other