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Flashcards in *Anatomy 2 Deck (64)
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1

What are the 3 links that can be made between the heart and nerves?

Dual motor control of the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetics)
Visceral afferent nerves
Conducting system of the heart and arrhythmia

2

How does the autonomic innervation reach the heart? - sympathetics, parasympathetics and visceral afferent nerves

Via the cardiac plexus

3

What is the effective the sympathetic nerves on the heart? (2)

Increases heart rate
Increases contractility

4

What is the effect of the parasympathetic nerves on the heart?

Decreases heart rate

5

What types (2) of viscera afferent nerves are involved in the heart?

Pain fibres
Visceral reflex afferents (e.g. from baroreceptors)

6

How do pain fibres travel to the spinal cord?

Alongside sympathetic nerves

7

Where do visceral reflex afferents mainly travel in?

The vagus nerve

8

For sympathetic innervation, what is the neurotransmitter than synapses between the axon of the presynaptic neurone and cell body of postsynaptic neurone?

Acetylcholine

9

For synaptic innervation, what is the neurone that connects between the ganglion and organ?

Noradrenaline

10

What do presynaptic sympathetic fibres from the brain do?

Travel inferiorly within spinal cord tracts and then exit the spinal cord in one of T1-L2/3 spinal nerves (thoracolumbar) and then can do 1 of 5 options

11

What are the 5 things that sympathetic signals which have traveled within the spinal cord and exited in one of T1-L2/3 can do?
What are the 3 options that are involved with the sympathetic stimulation of the heart?

Go into the ganglion (in sympathetic chain) of that level and synapse
Travel superiorly in the sympathetic chain to another ganglion and synapse
Travel inferiorly in the sympathetic chain to another ganglion and synpase
Pass through the sympathetic chain ganglion without synopsis, as abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves, to synapse in one of the pre-vertebral ganglia of the abdomen
Pass straight to the adrenal medulla without synapsing as an abdominopelvic splanchnic nerve
Top 3 are options for stimulation of heart

12

What are the names of the cervical sympathetic ganglia?

Superior
Middle
Inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia

13

What are the names of the postsynaptic fibres which provide sympathetics to the heart and lungs?

Cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves

14

What ganglia have nerves that come out of them to produce the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves?

T1-T5 ganglia and cervical ganglia

15

For essentially midline organs such as the heart is there unilateral or bilateral sympathetic innervation?

Bilateral

16

What is the cardiac plexus made up of?

Sympathetic fibres
Parasympathetic fibres
Visceral afferent fibres

17

What is the neurotransmitter released by both the presynaptic and postsynaptic fibres of parasympathetic fibres?

Acetylcholine

18

How do the parasympathetic reach the organs?

Through cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and the sacral spinal nerves

19

How many parasympathetic ganglia are in the head?

4 (1 for occulomotor nerve , 2 for facial nerve and 1 for glossopharyngeal nerve)

20

How does the presynaptic parasympathetic fibres from the vagus nerve reach the organs?

Synapse onto postsynaptic neurones (with short axons in ganglia within the walls of the organs of the chest and upper abdomen)

21

What provides parasympathetic innervation to the organs of the lower abdomen, pelvis and perineum?

The pelvic splanchnic nerves

22

What does the vagus nerve innervate?

All the organs from the neck, chest and abdomen as far as the end of the midgut

23

Where does the vagus nerve attach to the heart?

At the SA node

24

What travels in the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves?

Postsynaptic cardiac sympathetic efferent
Cardiac visceral afferent

25

Where are the visceral afferent nerve endings in the heart located for stretch and chemicals? (8)

Inner aortic arch
Pulmonary trunk
Vena cavae
Around the SA node
Outflow tracts from both ventricles
Papillary muscles
Root of aorta
IV septum

26

What are chemoreceptors?

any of the special cells or organs adapted for excitation by chemical substances and located outside the central nervous system.

27

What are 2 examples of chemoreceptors?

Aortic bodies (in root of aorta)
Carotid bodies

28

What is pain? (definition)

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage

29

In anatomical/ physiological terms, what is pain?

Stimulation of sensory receptor
Afferent action potential reaches brain
We "feel" the pain according to the part of the brain that is stimulated by the action potential

30

What are the potential sources of central chest pain? (2)

Somatic
Visceral (organ)