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Flashcards in Anatomy 3 Michigan Deck (102):
1

lies against the lateral surface of the arch of the aorta

left vagus nerve

2

an especially important nerve from the vagus which loops around the aortic arch

left recurrent laryngeal nerve

3

lateral to the vagus nerves and are not looping near the aortic arch

left and right phrenic nerves

4

If you take a very deep breath, the lingula of the left lung, which is formed by the cardiac notch, will tend to expand into

the costomediastinal recess

5

The tubercle of a rib is a projection located posteroinferior and lateral to the neck of the rib. It articulates with

the transverse process of the vertebrae with the same number

6

 the part of the plural cavity which extends above the level of the 1st rib into the root of the neck

cupola

7

the point where the visceral pleura of the lung reflects to become continuous with the parietal pleura

hilar reflection

8

a double layer of pleura extending from the inferior end of the hilar reflection downward to the diaphragm. So, it is a structure that would block you from moving your finger posteriorly at the root of a lung

pulmonary ligament

9

During ____, the tricuspid and mitral valves are closed.

systole (ventricules push blood out)

10

During ____, the pulmonary and aorta valves are closed

diastole (ventricles fill with blood)

11

The most important source of blood to the interventricular septum is the

anterior interventricular artery, a branch of the left coronary artery (affects conducting system)

12

Traumatic, acceleration/deceleration injuries to the aorta usually occur where its mobile and fixed portions meet. This would be at the:

ligamentum arteriosum

13

if the azygos vein became dilated, it could impinge on the 

thoracic duct

14

Elevated systolic blood pressure in the right ventricle suggests stenosis of which valve

pulmonary! (consider what valve is distal to site of high pressure)

15

 just to the left of the xiphisternal junction

safest place for pericardiocentesis

16

a tongue-like projection of the left lung below the cardiac notch, is right next to the costomediastinal recess

lingula

17

a surgeon accidentally cuts the first aortic intercostal arteries. Which of the following structures might be deprived of its main source of blood supply?

right bronchus?!

18

most likely place for aspirations to collect in the lungs

Superior segment--inferior lobe

19

horizontal fissure separates

the upper lobe from the middle lobe (right side only)

20

aneurysm of ascending aorta or thymus would impinge on

left brachiocephalic vein

21

Sympathetic fibers in the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve arise from neuron cell bodies found in the:

spinal chord

22

Afferent fibers would not have their cell bodies located in the lateral horn--afferent sensory fibers have cell bodies in

dorsal root ganglia

23

The sympathetic nerves to the heart, aorta, lungs, and bronchi are carried in the cardiac and pulmonary plexuses. These fibers are not found in 

spinal nerves

24

In the mid thorax, the aorta, thoracic duct, and azygos vein are all ____ to the esophagus. (They are in that order, from left to right.)

posterior (Don't touch asses)

25

 carry presynaptic sympathetic fibers to the sympathetic trunk. When a presynaptic nerve fiber reaches the sympathetic chain, there are three things that can happen. First, the nerve fibers can enter a ganglia, synapse at that level, and rejoin the spinal nerve via the grey rami communicantes. Second, the preganglionic nerve fibers can travel up and down the trunk, synapse in a ganglia at another level, and then rejoin a spinal nerve. This is how sympathetic fibers join spinal nerves at the cervical and lumbar levels, which are above and below the lateral horn. Third, some preganglionic fibers do not synapse in the trunk and, instead, form splanchnic nerves. These nerves descend into the abdomen and synapse in other ganglia.

white ramus communicantes

26

 contains preganglionic fibers that are destined to synapse in the celiac plexus. 

greater thoracic splanchnic

27

the left superior intercostal vein, which normally drains into the: 

left brachiocephalic vein, not azygous

28

 lie on the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies, medial to the sympathetic trunk, which is lying on the heads of the ribs.

thoracic splanchnic nerves

29

the blood vessel immediately behind the right main bronchus

azygous vein

30

The inferior border of the rectus sheath posteriorly is called the

arcuate line

31

a bony process that would be felt lateral to the edge of the spermatic cord at the superficial inguinal ring.

pubic tubercle

32

provides sensory innervation to the skin of the lower abdominal wall, upper hip and upper thigh.

iliohypogastric nerve

33

provides sensory innervation to the skin of the anterior scrotum or labia majora and upper medial thigh

genitofemoral nerve

34

 below the arcuate line there is no longer a posterior layer of the ____, and the inner surface of the rectus abdominis is lined only with ____.

rectus sheath, transversalis fascia

35

 found in the preperitoneal fat of the abdomen. They lie just superficial to the peritoneum and form the lateral umbilical fold. Indirect hernias are laternal to there, direct are medial.

inferior epigastric arteries.

36

internal thoracic and inferior epigastric arteries supply blood to this muscle

rectus abdominus

37

The medial inguinal fossa is the space on the inner abdominal wall between the medial umbilical fold and the lateral umbilical fold. This is the place in the abdominal wall where there is an area of weak fascia called the inguinal triangle--direct inguinal hernias can break through this space

The medial inguinal fossa

38

a space lateral to the lateral umbilical fold--indirect inguinal hernias push through the deep inguinal ring in this space.

lateral inguinal fossa

39

one would find the inferior epigastric vessels between which layers of the abdominal wall

transversus abdominis and peritoneum

40

 the position of the deep inguinal ring

midpoint of inguinal ligament

41

nerve involved in scrotal pain

ilioinguinal (weakness leading to hernias can be linked to this nerve)

42

defined medially by the lateral border of rectus abdominus, inferiorly by the inguinal ligament, and superiorly by the inferior epigastric arter

inguinal triangle (arcuate line is not a boundary!)

43

do not run in tandem. ____ is part of the portal venous system--it drains into the splenic vein which drains into the hepatic portal vein. ____ is a branch off the descending aorta at the level of the L3 vertebral body. However, they supply/drain the same region: the descending and sigmoid colon and the rectum

inferior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric artery

44

surgical location of the appendix

the confluence of the teniae coli

45

When the stomach rotates, the ventral border becomes

lesser curvture

46

can be lined by the mucosa of the stomach and ulcerate. Or, it can be lined with ectopic pancreatic tissue.

meckel's diverticulm

47

 the most distal branch of the superior mesenteric artery and the most proximal branch of the inferior mesenteric artery

the middle colic (from the SMA) and the left colic (from the IMA).

48

 a branch of the common hepatic artery; it descends behind the first part of the duodenum

gastroduodenal artery

49

could tear if there was too much traction while pulling the descending colon away from the body wall.

spleen

50

If the posterior wall of the stomach eroded, gastric juices could damage the

splenic artery

51

a passageway between the greater peritoneal sac and the lesser peritoneal sac. It is located posterior to the hepatoduodenal ligament and the first part of the duodenum. The caudate lobe of the liver forms the posterior wall of the epiploic foramen

omental foramen

52

a nerve lying in the upper portion of the hepatogastric ligament

Hepatic branch of the anterior vagal trunk

53

The fundus of the stomach receives its arterial supply from the

splenic artery

54

If the gastroduodenal artery and its branches were ligated, blood would flow in a retrograde direction from the

left gastroepiploic artery, which is a branch of the splenic artery, to the right gastroepiploic artery, a ligated branch of the gastroduodenal artery

55

lies immeadiately posterior to omental foramen

IVC

56

 identify the structures that make the line that separates the true/functional lobes of the liver

gallbladder fossa and inferior vena cava

57

the nutcracker-like compression of the bowel between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta is most likely to affect

duodenum, 3rd part

58

part of duodenum with a thin wall and no circular folds

superior part, where ampullas are

59

These veins are large, so a bypass between them could be useful for relieving the portal hypertension.

splenic vein to left renal vein

60

 the walls become thicker, and circular folds develop

second part of duodenum

61

 usually empties into the splenic vein. The splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein then unite to form the portal vein

inferior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric artery

62

 the right suprarenal gland is partly overlain anteriorly  by

IVC

63

The left inferior phrenic vein, left suprarenal vein, and left ovarian/testicular vein all drain into the

left renal vein

64

The lesser thoracic splanchnic nerves are not part of the ____--these nerves synapse in the aorticorenal ganglia and contribute to the renal plexus.

celiac ganglia

65

Even though the ____ does not synapse in the celiac ganglia, it passes through the ganglia and contributes to the celiac plexus

vagus nerve

66

Cells that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine are innervated by preganglionic fibers from

greater splanchnic nerve

67

is found in the central tendon of the diaphragm

caval opening

68

 is formed by the median arcuate ligament, which unites the two crura of the diaphragm

aortic hiatus

69

is formed entirely by the fibers of the right crus

esophageal hiatus

70

passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm, near the vena caval foramen

right phrenic nerve

71

The nerves that end on the secretory cells of the medulla of the suprarenal glands are principally

Preganglionic fibers from the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve

72

is directly innervated by preganglionic sympathetic fibers from the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve

adrenal medulla

73

renal fascia is continuous with

inferior, toward pelvis (direction of ureters)

74

lost sensation to the skin of her anterior thigh and cannot extend her knee

femoral nerve lesion

75

damaged by a stab wound into the ischiorectal (ischioanal) fossa 2 cm lateral to the anal canal

pudendal nerve

76

what is ligated to sterilize a male?

vas deferens

77

the structure that joins the apex of the fetal bladder to the umbilicus. After birth, it becomes the median umbilical ligamen

urachus

78

a reflection of the peritoneum between the rectum and the bladder. It can only be found in males because females have the uterus sitting between the rectum and the bladder

reticovesicular pouch

79

does duct of seminal vesicle conduct spermatozoa

nope

80

travels through the prostate and opens into the prostatic urethra

ejaculatory duct

81

 the two ducts that join to make the ejaculatory duct. They both lie on the posterior surface of the bladder

duct of seminal vesicle, and ductus deferens

82

Since the uterus is folded over the bladder, the rectouterine pouch can extend to a _____ level than the vesicouterine pouch

slightly lower

83

has anterior, posterior, lateral, and middle lobes

prostate

84

specializations of the circular layer of musculature that are designed to support fecal mass

transverse rectal folds

85

 an expanded part of the lower rectum that stores feces

ampulla, contains transverse rectal folds

86

prostate enlargement causes ___ to constrict urination

uvula of bladder

87

 an incision made through the posterior fornix of the vagina will allow a surgeon to enter the

rectouterine pouch (useful in ectopic pregnancy)

88

 the part of broad ligament that supports the uterine tube

mesosalphinx

89

is the part of broad ligament that forms a shelf-like fold supporting the ovary

mesovarium

90

does femoral nerve enter true pelvis

nah

91

the part of the broad ligament of the uterus that attaches the body of the uterus to the pelvic wall.

mesometrium

92

The ureters pass through the base of the ____ as they travel to reach the bladder

mesometrium

93

The external iliac vein lies ____ to the external iliac artery 

medial

94

muscle to strengthen for urinary continence

puborectalis

95

The sacral splanchnic nerves do not come out of the sacral nerve roots--instead, these nerves come from the

sacral sympathetic ganglia

96

The arcus tendineus levator ani is a thickening of fascia of the

obturator internus

97

not near the perineum--it is more important as a landmark that creates the greater and lesser sciatic foramina which helps to organize the structures exiting the pelvis

sacrospinus ligament

98

The vestibular bulbs/bulb of the corpus spongiosum are firmly attached to the

perineal membrane

99

When performing a median episiotomy, a cut is made immediately posterior to the vagina, through the perineal body. If this cut went too far, the physician might cut through 

external anal sphincter or rectum

100

The bulbospongiosus muscle, ischiocavernosus muscle, and sphincter urethrae are ____ to the area that is cut during an episiotomy

anterior

101

 the inferior rectal vein is a tributary of the

internal pudendal vein

102

Lymphatic spread of labia majora infection would most likely enlarge which nodes?

superficial inguinal