Blackcloud Body Wall and Thorax p.1-18 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy III > Blackcloud Body Wall and Thorax p.1-18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blackcloud Body Wall and Thorax p.1-18 Deck (109):
1

most superficial thoracic wall muscle

external intercostal m.

2

deeper thoracic wall muscles, fiber perpedicular to external intercostal

internal thoracic muscles

3

internal to intercostal, attached t osternum and inner surface of ribs

tranversus thoracis

4

intercostal vessels from superior to inferior

intercostal vein, artery, nerve

5

anterior intercostal arteries are ____ than posterior intercostal arteries

much smaller

6

posterior intercostal arteries arise from

descending aorta (most superior, from branches of the subclavian)

7

posterior intercostal arteries anastomose with

anterior intercostals, duh

8

intercostal nerves are (come from)

ventral rami of spinal nerves 1 t o11

9

First 6 instercostal nerves run

within an intercostal space

10

intercostal ribs 7-11

being intercostally, run along anterior abdominal body wall

11

branches of internal thoracic artery

musculophrenic and superior epigastric arteries

12

fluid, blood or pus can safely be removed from

costodiaphragmatic recess

13

where to insert needle to reach costodiaphragmatic space

near middle of 9th intercostal space

14

blood supply and innervation of visceral layer is same as

the organ

15

blood supply and innervation of parietal layer is same as

adjacent body wall

16

parietal pericardium is innervated by

phrenic nerve

17

parietal pericardium receives blood from which two branches of the internal thoracic artery, and what else?

pericardiophrenic artery, musculophrenic artery, descending thoracic aorta

18

parietal pleura is innervated by

phrenic nerve & intercostal nerves

19

parietal pleura receives blood from

intercostal arteries

20

parietal pericardium cannot be separated from

the diaphragm

21

visceral pericardium cannot be separated from

the heart

22

the place between the two pleural cavities is called

the mediastinum

23

mediastinum superior border

superior thoracic aperture, an imaginary line from T1 to superior borer of manubrium

24

mediastinum inferior border

diaphragm

25

mediastinum posterior border

vertebral column

26

mediastinum anterior border

sternum

27

superior mediastinum

thoracic inlet to T4-5

28

anterior mediastinum

sternum to pericardium

29

middle mediastinum

space occupied by heart

30

posterior mediastinum

back of pericardium to T4-12

31

brachiocephalic veins drain

upper limbs, head and neck

32

upper half of superior vena cava drains

from upper half of body to right atrium

33

arch of the azygous vein drains

from posterior walls of thorax and abdomen into superior vena cava

34

ventral rami of C3,4,5

phrenic nerve

35

phrenic nerve innervates

diaphragm, parietal pericardium, mediastinal parietal pleura

36

phrenic nerve and pericardiophrenic vessels pass ____ the root of the lung

in front of

37

vagus nerve passes ____ the root of the lung

behind

38

passes posterior to the ligamentum arteriosum to reach the trachea

left recurrent laryngeal nerve

39

the vagus nerve provides

parasympathetic innervation to thoracic viscera

40

the vagus nerve breaks up into _____ before branching into _______

esophageal plexus, left vagus nerve (becomes anterior vagal trunk) and right vagus nerve (becomes posterior vagal trunk)

41

the fibrous pericardium, what is it good for?

continuous with central tendon of diaphragm, protects the heart from sudden overfilling and anchors it to the wall

42

the two layers of the serous pericardium are called what?

parietal layer, visceral layer

43

what runs posterior to the pulmonary trunk and aorta, anterior to superior vena cava?

transverse pericardial sinus

44

where do the arterial and venous ends of the developing heart meet?

transverse pericardial sinus

45

what is underneath the heart, up to a superior border of parietal and visceral pericardium?

oblique pericardial sinus

46

what facilitates clamping the aorta and pulmonary trunk during cardiac surgery?

transverse pericardial sinus

47

right coronary artery runs in which sulcus?

coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus

48

anterior interventricular artery runs in which sulcus?

anterior interventricular sulcus

49

what runs in the posterior intraventricular sulcus?

posterior interventricular artery

50

where does the posterior interventricular artery branch from?

right coronary artery (70%) or anterior interventricular artery (30%)

51

what vein runs in the anterior interventricular sulcus and coronary sulcus and becomes the coronary sinus?

great cardiac vein

52

where does the coronary sinus enter the heart?

right atrium

53

what vein runs in the posterior interventricular sinus and drains into the coronary sinus?

middle cardiac vein

54

anterior cardiac vein drains directly into

right atrium

55

a branch of the right coronary artery at or near the intersection of the coronal and posterior interventricular sulci

antrioventricular nodal artery

56

arterial blockages of right coronary artery are of primary concern in:

Right-dominant hearts (15% of population, right coronary continues in atrioventriuclar sulcus past the interventricular sulcus

57

In left-dominant hearts, ____ gives rise to posterior interventricular artery

circumflex branch of left coronary

58

patent foramen ovale found in

right atrium, 20% of population

59

what opens into right atrium

SVC, IVC, coronary sinus

60

pectinate muscle in right atrium attach to

crista terminalis

61

near tricuspid valve, right ventricle raises into ridges called

trabeculae carneae

62

Cone-shaped entrance to pulmonary trunk is found in the _____ and called ____

right ventricle, conus arteriosis

63

most of the diaphragmatic surface of the heart is formed by the

left ventricle

64

trabeculae carneae are found

in both ventricles

65

four pulmonary veins run into

left atrium

66

valve between right atrium and right ventricle

tricuspid (anterior, septal, posterior)

67

cusps are anchored to ____ by ____

papilllary muscles (extensions of trabeculae carneae), tendinous cords

68

valve between left atrium and left ventrical

mitral valve

69

contraction of papillary muscles

prevents them from prolapsing. Valve opening and closing is passive

70

what are the two semilunar valves

pulmonary and aortic

71

aortic valve has

right, left, and posterior cusps

72

pulmonary valve has

right, left and anterior cusps

73

ventricles relax and fill

diastole. mitral and tricuspid valves are open

74

ventricles contract and empty

systole. Aortic and pulmonary valves are open

75

the heart receives sympathetic innervation from

splanchnic nerves from sympathetic chain at cervical level and T1-T4

76

pass through ventral roots, spinal nerve, and white ramus communicantes from T1-T4

presynaptic sympathetic axons (to heart)

77

travel in cervical and upper thoracic splanchnic nerves passing through cardiac plexus to reach heart

Postsynaptic sympathetic axons (to heart)

78

the only time that sympathetics dilate

coronary artery vasodilation

79

heart receives parasympathetic innervation from

vagus nerve

80

located within vagal nuclei in the brainstem

presynaptic parasympathetic neuronal bodies (to heart)

81

synapse in tiny ganglions within cardiac plexus or within walls of the atria

presynaptic parasympathetic neuronal bodies (to heart)

82

parasympathetic action in heart

vasoconstriction of coronal arteries, decreased heart rate and force of contraction

83

GA for reflexes return with

vagus nerve

84

GA for pain return with

cervical and/or upper thoracic splanchic, through sympathetic ganglia and white ramus comminicantes to reach spinal nerves and dorsal roots

85

blockages in coronary arteries cause

myocardial ischemia, due to insufficient anastomoses

86

sensory innervation in heart sensitive to

oxygen changes, but not temperature or cutting

87

what is responsible for initiating and coordinating heartbeat?

sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes

88

which node is faster (pacemaker)?

Sinuatrial node

89

series of fibrous rings surrounding atrioventricular and semilunar valves

cardiac skeleton

90

role of cardiac skeleton

stabilizes valves, serves as an attachment site for cardiac muscle fibers, electrically isolates atria from ventricles

91

ridge of cartilage in the midline of the bifurcation between the primary bronchii

carina

92

brnaches of the aorta, supply oxygenated blood to lungs and visceral pleura

bronchial arteries

93

tributaries of azygous system, drain blood form structures within or close to root of lung

bronchial veins

94

right bronchial vein drains into

azygous vein

95

left bronchial vein drains into

accessory hemiazygous vein

96

pulmonary arteries contain

deoxygentaed blood

97

pulmonary veins contain

oxygenated blood

98

pulmonary arteries are initially ____ pulmonary veins, then ____ as they enter the lungs

superior to, posterior to

99

which pulmonary artery is longer?

right

100

the bronchii are ____ to the pulmonary arteries and veins in the root of the lung

posterior to

101

sympathetic innervation to lungs: presynaptic

neurons loacted T1-T4, through white ramus communicantes, synapse in upper thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia from T1-T4

102

sympathetic innervation to lungs: postsynaptic

travel in upper thoracic splanchnic nerves through pulmonary plexus to lungs

103

symapthetic innervation to lungs: action

inhibit bronchial glands, inhibit smooth muscle, cause vasoconstriction of vasculature,

104

parasympathetic innervation to lungs: presynaptic

from vagal nuclei in brainstem, through sensory ganglion of vagus nerve, to pulmonary plexus, synapsing on tiny ganglia.

105

parasympathetic innervation to lungs: postsynaptic

from pulmonary plexus to lungs

106

parasympathetic to lungs: action

secretomotor to bronchial glands, motor to smooth muscle in bronchial walls, vasodilation of pulmonary vasculature

107

GA for lung reflexes returns with

vagus, with cells located in sensory ganglion of vagus nerve.

108

pain axons in lung?

nope.

109

pain axons in parietal pleura?

yes: somatic intercostal and phrenic nerves