Blackcloud Body Wall and Thorax p.40-65 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy III > Blackcloud Body Wall and Thorax p.40-65 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blackcloud Body Wall and Thorax p.40-65 Deck (135):
1

connects to posterior abdominal wall, fan-shaped, attachment called “root”

“the mesentery” of jejunum and ileum

2

jejunum, ileum, transverse and sigmoid colon, first and fourth part of duodenum, cecum, appendix

intraperitoneal segments, covered in visceral peritoneum

3

middle duodenum, ascending and descending colon

secondarily retroperitoneal segments (developed in a reabsorbed mesentery, stuck to posterior abdominal wall)

4

has a thick wall and mucosa with circular folds, proximal 2/5

jejunum

5

thin walls, few if any circular folds, numerous lymphoid nodules, distal 3/5

ileum

6

1/3 of the way between anterior superior iliac spine and umbilicus

Mc Burney's point, most common location of appendix

7

Does the cecum have a mesentery? Does the appendix?

No, yes.

8

peritoneal gap at the duodenojejunal junction, potential space for fluid or hernia

duodenal recess

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Which part of colon has mesentery?

tranverse (fusese with greater omentum during development), sigmoid

10

colic flexure attached to diaphragm by phrenicocolic ligament, usually superior to other

left colic flexure

11

approximate location of rectosigmoid junction

S3

12

large size, omental fat tags, tenaie coli muscles, haustra saccules

large intestine, not small!

13

small outpocketing from colon, develop with age, may become inflamed

diverticuli

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celiac trunk originates near

T12

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inferior pancreaticoduodenal, middle colic, intestinal, ileocolic and right colic are branches of

superior mesenteric artery

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supplies duodenum distal to bile duct, head of pancreas

inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

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supplies proximal 2/3 of transverse colon, runs in transverse mesocolon

middle colic artery

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supply jejunum, ileum, “the” mesentery, end in straight terminal branches called vasa recta

intestinal arteries

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supply distal ileum, appendix, cecum and proximal ascending colon

ileocolic artery

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supplies ascending colon, is entirely retroperitoneal

right colic artery

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branches include left colic, sigmoidal, superior rectal

inferior mesenteric

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supplies descending colon, distal transverse colon

left colic artery

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supplies sigmoid colon

sigmoidal branches

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supplies superior part of the rectum

superior rectal artery

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continuous artery running along entire large intestine

marginal artery

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celiac trunk branches anastomose with branches of

superior mesenteric artery

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superior mesenteric artery anastomoses with

celiac trunk and inferior mesenteric artery

28

left colic artery (IMA) anastomoses with

middle colic branch (SMA)

29

why is reverse blood flow possible in GI tract?

No valves in GI veins

30

anastomoses between esophageal branch of left gastric (portal) and esophageal tributaries of azygous (caval) result in

potentially fatal esophageal varices

31

anastomoses between superior rectal vein (portal) and mid and inferior rectal veins (caval) can result in

hemorrhoids

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anastomoses between paraumbilical veins (portal) and superficial epigastric veins of anterior abdominal wall (caval) can result in

caput medusa

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all of the duodenum, except proximal 2cm, which has mesentery, ligament, portal vein and bile duct

retroperitoneal

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part of duodenum that is most intraperitoneal

superior part (first)

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part of duodenum right of midline, anterior to kidney, retroperitoneal, where bile and pancreatic ducts drain

descending part (second)

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part of duodenum anterior to IVC and aorta, retroperitoneal, crossed anteriorly by superior mesenteric vessels

horizontal part (third)

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part of duodenum that ascends to join jejunum

ascending part (fourth)

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supplies majority of superior duodenum

superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

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supplies descending, horizantal and ascending duodenum

inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

40

inferior mesenteric vein ____ accompany artery, passes ____ of the duodenojejunal junction

does not, to the left of

41

explains the prevalence of liver metastases in colon cancer

colon drains to portal vein, blood goes to liver

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where bile duct and main pancreatic duct enter the duodenum

major duodenal papilla (internal surface)

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accessory pancreatic duct enters duodenum as ____, which is ____ to major papilla

minor duodenal papilla, superior to

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expanded part of pancreas, embraced by C-curve of duodenum

head

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short part of pancreas, overlies superior mesenteric vessels

neck

46

continuation from the neck of the pancreas

body

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part of pancreas closely related to the hilum pf spleen and left colic flexure

tail

48

tributaries of splenic and superior mesenteric parts of hepatic portal vein, empty into splenic vein

pancreatic veins

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which kidney is higher?

left

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Kidneys ____ one vertebral level during inspiration

descend

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atrophy of fascial sheath results in pathological increase of mobility, which may cause pain or restrict blood flow

floating kidney

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fusion of inferior poles of kidneys is called ____, full ascent is hindered by ____.

horseshoe kidney, inferior mesenteric artery

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pain originating in mid-back and moving to inguinal region

kidney stones

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minor calyxes at tips of renal pelvis, passed to major then pelvis to reach ureter

passage of filtrate in kidney

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renal pelvis is ____ to renal artery and vein

posterior to (bridge over water)

56

adrenal glands are ___ to the diaphragm

anterior

57

derived from mesoderm, produces mineralocortocoids, glucocorticoids and sex hormones

adrenal cortex

58

deficiency of mineralocortocoids causes

Addison's disease

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excess of glucocortocoids causes

Cushing's disease

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derived from neural crest and secretes epinephrine

adrenal medulla

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tumor resulting in excess levels of epinephrine

pheochromocytoma

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supplies adrenal glands

inferior phrenic arteries, aorta and renal arteries

63

drains adrenal glands

left into renal vein, right into IVC

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supplies kidneys

renal arteries, anterior to ureter, posterior to renal veins

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which renal artery is longer, passes posterior to superior mesenteric artery

right

66

supplies gonads, branches from aorta between SMA and IMA

gonadal arteries

67

drains right gonad

IVC

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drains left gonad

left renal vein

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are ureters intraperitoneal?

No. Primarily retroperitoneal

70

ureters pass ____ to psoas major

anterior

71

ureters pass ____ to gonadal vessels

posterior to (bridge over water)

72

ureters enter the pelvis by crossing ____ to the bifurcation of common iliac into internal and external

anterior (not bridge over water!)

73

ureter is supplied by

renal, gonadal and vesical arteries

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ureter is innervated by

renal and hypogastric plexuses

75

T5-T9, goes to celiac ganglia

greater splanchnic nerve

76

axons modulate the enteric system of the foregut, adrenal medulla

greater splanchnic nerve

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T10-T11, goes to aorticorenal ganglia

lesser splanchnic nerve

78

axons innervate cecum, appendix, ascending colon, proximal 2/3 of transverse colon (midgut)

lesser splanchnic nerve

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T12, goes to inferior mesenteric ganglia

least splanchnic nerve

80

all splanchnics pierce

crura of diaphragm

81

splanchnic chain enters abdominal cavity by passing under

medial arcuate ligament (fascia over psoas major)

82

Splanchnics synapse in ____, NOT sympathetic chain ganglia

prevertebral (preaortic) ganglia

83

passes through preaortic, superior hypogastric, and hypogastric plexuses to reach viscera

lumbar splanchnics (L1-L5)

84

provide parasympathetic innervation to pelvic viscera

vagus and pelvic splanchnic nerves

85

where do vagal trunks pass into abdomen

esophageal hiatus

86

pass through the hypogastric nerves and superior hypogastric plexus to reach conduit between the abdominal and pelvic cavities

pelvic nerves

87

sensory nerve axons in abdomen piggyback with

autonomic axons

88

sensory innervation in abdomen returning with vagus nerve mediates

reflexes

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sensory innervation in abdomen returning with pelvic splanchnic nerves mediates

pain and reflexes

90

are located in the sensory ganglia of vagus nerve X and dorsal root ganglia from S2-S4

sensory neurons

91

only contain postsynaptic sympathetic neurons and are named according to the closest artery

prevertebral ganglia

92

largest of the prevertebral ganglia

celiac ganglia: look for it on the practical!

93

presynaptic sypathetic axons in L3-L5 lumbar splanchnics must

descend in sympathetic chain from L1-2

94

greater splanchnics (T5-T9) piggyback

Celiac trunk and SMA

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lesser splanchnics (T10-11) piggyback

SMA and renal artery

96

least splanchnics (T1) piggyback

IMA

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lumbar splanchnics (L1-5) piggyback

IMA

98

presynaptic parasympathetic neurons to viscera have cell bodies in vagal nuclei in medulla or

in spinal cord from S2 to S4

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parasympathetic axons from vagal trunk piggyback on

celiac trunk and SMA

100

parasympathetic axons from pelvic splanchnic nerves piggyback on

IMA

101

no peristalsis in aganglionic segment of gut leads to megacolon

Hirshprung's disease

102

if it piggybacks on the branches of celiac trunk, it innervates

stomach, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, spleen, pancreas, proximal duodenum

103

if it piggybacks oin the SMA, it innervates

distal duodenum, pancreas, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending and promximal transverse colon

104

if it piggybacks on the IMA, it innervates

distal transverse colon, descending and sigmoid colon, proximal rectum

105

all neurons mediating pain are in the ____ ganglia

dorsal root

106

attaches to transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and tendon to lesser trochanter of femur

psoas major

107

attaches to T12 and L1 and pubic bone

psoas minor

108

attaches to 12th rib, tips of lumbar transverse processes and iliolumbar ligament, iliac crest

quadratus lumborum

109

attaches to 7th-12th costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, CT deep to inguinal ligament, and linea alba with aponeurosis of internal oblique, pubic crest and pectin pubis

transversus abdominus

110

muscle innervated by lumbar plexus (anterior branches of L2-L4)

psoas major

111

muscle innervated by anterior ramus of L1

psoas minor

112

muscle innervated by anterior branches of T12 and L1-4

quadratus lumborum

113

muscle innervated by thoracoabdominal nerves (anterior rami of T7-T11) and first lumbar nerve

transversus abdominus

114

flex thigh, flex vertebral colum laterally, flexes trunk

psoas major

115

weak flexor of vertebrae

psoas minor

116

extends and laterally flexes vertebral column, fixes 12th rib during inspiration

quadratus lumborum

117

compresses and supports abdominal viscera

tranversus abdominis

118

parts of the diaphragm are named by their bony attachments, which are

sternal, lumbar, costal

119

all muscular parts of the diaphragm are also connected to

central tendon

120

blood supply to the diaphragm

superior phrenic arteries from thoracic aorta, musculophrenic and pericardiophrenic from internal thoracic arteries

121

diaphragm innervated by

C3,4,5

122

which part of diaphragm includes the crura and two free edges called ligaments

lumbar diaphragm

123

extend inferiorly and attach to lumbar vertebrae

right and left crura

124

overlies the psoas major

medial arcuate ligament

125

overlies the quadratus lumborum

lateral acruate ligament

126

opening in diaphragm within central tendon at T8

caval opening

127

what passes through caval opening?

IVC (vena cava=8 letters=T8)

128

opening in right crus of diaphragm, usually at T10

esophageal hiatus

129

what passes through esophageal hiatus?

esophagus, anterior and posterior vagal trunks, esophageal branches of left gastric vessels (vagal trunk = 10 letters = T10)

130

opening posterior to diaphragm between right and left crura, usually at T 12

aortic hiatus

131

what passes through the aortic hiatus?

aorta, thoracic duct, possibly azygous or hemiazygous vein. (aortic hiatus = 12 letters= T12)

132

follow the branches of the celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, not veins, back to aorta

lymphatic vessels draining abdominal viscera

133

lymphatic vessels from abdominal viscera drain into ____ before thoracic duct

cisterna chyli

134

Thin-walled sac at inferior end of thoracic duct, anterior to the bodies of L1 and L2, between right crus and aorta

cisterna chyli

135

superior mesenteric artery and vein are ____ to horizontal duodenum

anterior