Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (199)
baby born with heart outside chest wall
"bowl shaped"overgrowth of costal cartilage. push sternum/xiphoid INWARD to chest
lung deflates due to break in intraplural sealSx: absent breath soundsdyspnea
sternal angle of louis
2nd costal cartilage
"midway"central compartment of the thoracic cavity. It contains the heart, the great vessels of the heart, the esophagus, the trachea, the phrenic nerve, the cardiac nerve, the thoracic duct, the thymus, and the lymph nodes of the central chest.surrounded by loose connective tissue. superior and inferior portions divide at T4/T5
valvular areas for auscultation
places to put stethoscope where valvular sounds project to the chest surface (A,P, T, M)
aortic valve: 2RICS
pulmonic vlave: 2LICS
Tricuspid vavle: 4LICS
Mitral valve: apex, 4LICS or 5LICS at midclavicular line
primary mover of air in/out of lung
ventilation: movement of costovertebral joints and sternum
ribs rotate up and out to increase chest volume= "bucket handle"sternum pushes anterior= "pump handle"
chest tube btwn what muscles?
pect. major and latissimus dorsimid- or anterior- axillary line
placement of chest tube: where in ribs?
btwn 5th and 6th rib5th intercostal spacerun along TOP of rib to avoid V.A.N.mid- or anterior- axillary line
blood accumulates in the pleural spacelimiting the amount that the heart's ventricles are able to fillSx: dyspnea, diminished (distant) blood soundspercussion= Dull resonance
thoracic segment is loose and moves independently with "paradoxial motion"Sx: dyspnea
In expiration, the diaphragm rises to what level?
4th intercostal space at the level of the nipple, and thus chest drains should be placed above this level
pigeon chest/ "keel shaped"deformity of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs.
Difficult or labored breathing; shortness of breath
what causes an elevated hemidiaphragm
see on XRAY: diaphragmatic position is not symmetricphrenic nerve palsy/damage"C3/C4/C5 keeps the diaphragm alive"
which fascia lines the entire thoracic cage
what is the hilum of the lung
the doorway of the lungthe vessels and bronchi pass through this ('the root")
XRAY: widened mediastinum
trauma/ rapid deceleration accident (MVA)torn aorta
an incision through fifth intercostal space on the back, and is often widened with rib spreaders. common approach for operations on the lung/mediastinum/ esophagus/pulmonary hilum (pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein)
congenital abnorm: absence of stertnocostal head of pectoralis majorshortening of upper extremities/digitis
coarctation of the aorta
congenital abnormstenotic aorta (narrowed)intercostal arteries enlargedxray: notched/remodeling ribs(typically constriction found on aorta distal to branching of L subclavian artery)
arrangement of neurovascular bundle in costal grove
main intercostal Vein, Artery,m Nerve (VAN)superior to inferior
What as the embryonic origin of the respiratory system (trachea, bronci, lungs)?
at what age are the lungs fully mature?
compare development of right and left lungs/bronchi
right grows faster, and more vertically (has 3 lobes)left grows slower, more laterally- bronchi are oriented similarly (right is more vertical and wider)
Describe the most common tracheoesophageal fistula?
Proximal esophagus is closed off; distal esophagus communicates with trachea - Failure of primitive foregut to divide into ansterior trachia and posterior esophagus - Gastric acid could reflux into the lung
What develops from the M2A tube?
What is the origin of the pleural space?
Coelom (pocket of mesoderm)