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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (199)
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1

ectopia cordia

baby born with heart outside chest wall

2

pectus excavatum

"bowl shaped"overgrowth of costal cartilage. push sternum/xiphoid INWARD to chest

3

pneumothorax

lung deflates due to break in intraplural sealSx: absent breath soundsdyspnea

4

sternal angle of louis

2nd costal cartilage

5

mediastinum

"midway"central compartment of the thoracic cavity. It contains the heart, the great vessels of the heart, the esophagus, the trachea, the phrenic nerve, the cardiac nerve, the thoracic duct, the thymus, and the lymph nodes of the central chest.surrounded by loose connective tissue. superior and inferior portions divide at T4/T5

6

valvular areas for auscultation

places to put stethoscope where valvular sounds project to the chest surface (A,P, T, M)
aortic valve: 2RICS
pulmonic vlave: 2LICS
Tricuspid vavle: 4LICS
Mitral valve: apex, 4LICS or 5LICS at midclavicular line

7

primary mover of air in/out of lung

diaphragm

8

ventilation: movement of costovertebral joints and sternum

ribs rotate up and out to increase chest volume= "bucket handle"sternum pushes anterior= "pump handle"

9

chest tube btwn what muscles?

pect. major and latissimus dorsimid- or anterior- axillary line

10

placement of chest tube: where in ribs?

btwn 5th and 6th rib5th intercostal spacerun along TOP of rib to avoid V.A.N.mid- or anterior- axillary line

11

hemothorax

blood accumulates in the pleural spacelimiting the amount that the heart's ventricles are able to fillSx: dyspnea, diminished (distant) blood soundspercussion= Dull resonance

12

flail chest

thoracic segment is loose and moves independently with "paradoxial motion"Sx: dyspnea

13

In expiration, the diaphragm rises to what level?

4th intercostal space at the level of the nipple, and thus chest drains should be placed above this level

14

pectus carinatum

pigeon chest/ "keel shaped"deformity of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs.

15

dyspnea

Difficult or labored breathing; shortness of breath

16

what causes an elevated hemidiaphragm

see on XRAY: diaphragmatic position is not symmetricphrenic nerve palsy/damage"C3/C4/C5 keeps the diaphragm alive"

17

which fascia lines the entire thoracic cage

ENDOTHORACIC FASCIA

18

what is the hilum of the lung

the doorway of the lungthe vessels and bronchi pass through this ('the root")

19

XRAY: widened mediastinum

trauma/ rapid deceleration accident (MVA)torn aorta

20

posterolateral thoracotomy

an incision through fifth intercostal space on the back, and is often widened with rib spreaders. common approach for operations on the lung/mediastinum/ esophagus/pulmonary hilum (pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein)

21

poland syndrome

congenital abnorm: absence of stertnocostal head of pectoralis majorshortening of upper extremities/digitis

22

coarctation of the aorta

congenital abnormstenotic aorta (narrowed)intercostal arteries enlargedxray: notched/remodeling ribs(typically constriction found on aorta distal to branching of L subclavian artery)

23

arrangement of neurovascular bundle in costal grove

main intercostal Vein, Artery,m Nerve (VAN)superior to inferior

24

What as the embryonic origin of the respiratory system (trachea, bronci, lungs)?

respiratory diverticulum

25

at what age are the lungs fully mature?

8 years

26

compare development of right and left lungs/bronchi

right grows faster, and more vertically (has 3 lobes)left grows slower, more laterally- bronchi are oriented similarly (right is more vertical and wider)

27

Describe the most common tracheoesophageal fistula?

Proximal esophagus is closed off; distal esophagus communicates with trachea - Failure of primitive foregut to divide into ansterior trachia and posterior esophagus - Gastric acid could reflux into the lung

28

What develops from the M2A tube?

FILL IN

29

What is the origin of the pleural space?

Coelom (pocket of mesoderm)

30

Contrast the visceral and parietal pleura.

Visceral (splanchic) is adhered to the lung surface (can't be separated). - autonomic innervation (no pain sens.)Parietal (somatic) lines the outside of the cavity, lines the inside of the ribcage; - innervated (intercostal and phrenic n.), can feel pain