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Flashcards in Embryology Deck (57):
1

when does vascular sys develop in embryo

3rd week
no longer able to satisfy nutritional requirements by diffusion from mother

2

day #?: heart tube formed

21 days

3

day #?: folding of heart in embryo

22 days

4

day #?: looping of heart tube

23 days

5

largest category of human birth defects

heart and vascular abnorm

6

day #?: formation of ventricles

40 days

7

day #?: hematopoiesis and and vasculogenesis

17 days

8

sites of hematopoiesis in gestation

(month 1) yolk sac --> liver-->spleen-->bone marrow (birth)

9

what cells form blood vessels (vasculogenesis)

mesoderm cells --> endothelial cells-->vasculogenic cord forms

10

what regulates endothelial cell differentiation

transcription factors: Fox/Hox/Sox

11

steps in blood vessel proliferation (angiogenesis) (4)

1) proliferation of endothelial cells
2) migration
3) sprouting
4) intussusception (splitting)

12

day #?: extraembryonic blood vessel formation (blood islands)

19 days

13

what shuts help heart in utero to function as "1 chamber" (2)

inter-atrial and ductus arteriosus
L atria-->R
pulmonary trunk --> aortic arch
lungs not functioning*

14

in utero: where in circulatory system is circulation resistance high/low (pulmonary vs systemic?)

High: pulmonary system; lungs not functioning*
right side of heart

Low: systemic system; placenta=low pressure
left side of heart

15

when do shunts in heart close?

at birth

16

after birth: where in circulatory system is circulation resistance high/low (pulmonary vs systemic?)

after shunts close:
High: left side of heart (to body)
Low: right side of heart (to lungs)

17

what induces the development of the cardiogenic field
(myocardial morphogenesis)

transcription factors:
BMP, WNT, NKX
~day 17

18

what is cardiac jelly

~day 22
mesenchyme cells that make up endocardial tube

The gelatinous noncellular material between the endothelial lining and the myocardial layer of the heart

19

bulbus cordis becomes

~day 22
bulbed shaped portion of heart
becomes part of R ventricle blood outflow tract

20

what cells form the epicardium

mesothelial cells on surface of septum transversum

21

what divides to form the aorta and pulmonary artery

truncus arteriosus

22

what forms the coronary arteries (endothelial lining and smooth muscle)

~day 22
outer lay of mesothelial cells migrating from surface of septum transversum to form epicardium

23

name process that aligns 4 chambers of future heart correctly

cardiac looping
~day 23-28
~week4

24

endocardial cushions forms...

fuses at midline to form atrioventricular canal
separates L/R ventricle
~28-35 days

25

which vein is oxygenated in early embryo vascular system

umbillical vein

26

the sinus venosus becomes

the coronary sinus and smooth wall of R atrium and sinus venarum in adult heart

27

in heart looping, how does the bulbus cordis move?

caudally, ventrally, to the R

28

in heart looping, how does the primitive ventricle move

to the L

29

in heart looping, how does the sinus venosus move

dorsally and cranially

30

what is dextrocardia

abnorm condition in which the heart is pointed toward the right side of the chest.

31

what separates the common atrium

septum primum and secundum
~day 33

32

what openings connect newly divided atrium in fetus

foramen ovale and ostium secundum

33

what separates the ventricle in the heart

expanding interventricular septum and conus swellings
~week 7
ridges spiral and fuse

34

why is spiral of the conotruncal/ aorticopulmonary septum important inside the truncus arteriosus

shunts blood from R ventricle to lungs, and L ventricle to aorta

35

ventricular septal defects

Defect: IV septum does not form: in a newborn blood flows from L ventricle to R ventricle

36

what cells form the conotruncal/ aorticopulmonary septum important inside the truncus arteriosus

neural crest cells

37

abnormality: transposition of great vessels

If Spiral formation in conotruncal septum fails: blood flows from R ventricle to aorta

No oxygenated blood in circulation and newborn dies

If has atrial/ventricle defect some blood can mix and infant can live

38

what forms the ductus arteriosus

~8wks
the L 6th aortic arch artery
**ligamentum arteriosum pulls L side of recurrent laryngeal nerve lower than R

39

what later forms the R pulmonary artery

R 6th aortic arch

40

which # aortic arch later forms the aortic arch

L 4th aortic arch

41

which aortic arch later forms the proximal R subclvian artery

R 4th aortic arch

42

what does the 3rd aortic arch later form

common and internal carotid arteries

43

what does the embryonic aortic sac become

proximal aortic arch and brachiocephalic trunk

44

what embryonic structure later forms the adult common carotid artery

3rd aortic arch

45

what embryonic structure later forms the adult aortic arch

truncus arteriosus, aortic sac, L 4th arch, L dorsal aorta

46

what embryonic structure later forms the adult pulmonary trunk

truncus arteriosus

47

what embryonic structure later forms the adult ligamentum arteriosum

L 6th arch

48

what vessel carries oxygenated blood to the fetal heart

umbilical vein

49

what does the ductus venosus do in the fetal heart

shunts left umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava. Thus, it allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver.

50

what does the foramen ovale do in the fetal heart

connect L and R atrium

51

what does the ductus arteriosus do in the fetal heart

connects the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta. It allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled non-functioning lungs

52

what causes closure of the ductus arteriosus

rise in oxygen tension
bradykinin release= smooth muscle contraction

decreased prostaglandins from mother
occlusion from backward flow

53

what adult structure forms from the embryonic ductus arteriosus

ligamentum arteriosum

54

what adult structure forms from the embryonic ductus venosus

ligamentum venosus

55

what is the ligamentum arteriosum

small ligament attached to the superior surface of the left pulmonary artery and the proximal descending aorta

fixes the aorta in place

closely related to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve

56

abnorm: ductus venosus fails to close after birth

intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PSS)

57

what adult structure forms from the embryonic umbillical vein

ligamentum teres hepatitis