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Flashcards in Embryology Deck (57)
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1

when does vascular sys develop in embryo

3rd week
no longer able to satisfy nutritional requirements by diffusion from mother

2

day #?: heart tube formed

21 days

3

day #?: folding of heart in embryo

22 days

4

day #?: looping of heart tube

23 days

5

largest category of human birth defects

heart and vascular abnorm

6

day #?: formation of ventricles

40 days

7

day #?: hematopoiesis and and vasculogenesis

17 days

8

sites of hematopoiesis in gestation

(month 1) yolk sac --> liver-->spleen-->bone marrow (birth)

9

what cells form blood vessels (vasculogenesis)

mesoderm cells --> endothelial cells-->vasculogenic cord forms

10

what regulates endothelial cell differentiation

transcription factors: Fox/Hox/Sox

11

steps in blood vessel proliferation (angiogenesis) (4)

1) proliferation of endothelial cells
2) migration
3) sprouting
4) intussusception (splitting)

12

day #?: extraembryonic blood vessel formation (blood islands)

19 days

13

what shuts help heart in utero to function as "1 chamber" (2)

inter-atrial and ductus arteriosus
L atria-->R
pulmonary trunk --> aortic arch
lungs not functioning*

14

in utero: where in circulatory system is circulation resistance high/low (pulmonary vs systemic?)

High: pulmonary system; lungs not functioning*
right side of heart

Low: systemic system; placenta=low pressure
left side of heart

15

when do shunts in heart close?

at birth

16

after birth: where in circulatory system is circulation resistance high/low (pulmonary vs systemic?)

after shunts close:
High: left side of heart (to body)
Low: right side of heart (to lungs)

17

what induces the development of the cardiogenic field
(myocardial morphogenesis)

transcription factors:
BMP, WNT, NKX
~day 17

18

what is cardiac jelly

~day 22
mesenchyme cells that make up endocardial tube

The gelatinous noncellular material between the endothelial lining and the myocardial layer of the heart

19

bulbus cordis becomes

~day 22
bulbed shaped portion of heart
becomes part of R ventricle blood outflow tract

20

what cells form the epicardium

mesothelial cells on surface of septum transversum

21

what divides to form the aorta and pulmonary artery

truncus arteriosus

22

what forms the coronary arteries (endothelial lining and smooth muscle)

~day 22
outer lay of mesothelial cells migrating from surface of septum transversum to form epicardium

23

name process that aligns 4 chambers of future heart correctly

cardiac looping
~day 23-28
~week4

24

endocardial cushions forms...

fuses at midline to form atrioventricular canal
separates L/R ventricle
~28-35 days

25

which vein is oxygenated in early embryo vascular system

umbillical vein

26

the sinus venosus becomes

the coronary sinus and smooth wall of R atrium and sinus venarum in adult heart

27

in heart looping, how does the bulbus cordis move?

caudally, ventrally, to the R

28

in heart looping, how does the primitive ventricle move

to the L

29

in heart looping, how does the sinus venosus move

dorsally and cranially

30

what is dextrocardia

abnorm condition in which the heart is pointed toward the right side of the chest.